African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2205

Full Length Research Paper

Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of the aqueous ethanolic extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (RETZ) R. Br. Ex SCHULT and Sclerocarya birrea (A RICH) HOCHST

Estelle N. H. Youl
  • Estelle N. H. Youl
  • Laboratoire du Développement du Médicament, Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo. Burkina Faso.
  • Google Scholar
Sonia Nassouri
  • Sonia Nassouri
  • Laboratoire du Développement du Médicament, Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo. Burkina Faso.
  • Google Scholar
Sonia Ilboudo
  • Sonia Ilboudo
  • Laboratoire du Développement du Médicament, Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo. Burkina Faso.
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Moussa Ouédraogo
  • Moussa Ouédraogo
  • Laboratoire du Développement du Médicament, Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo. Burkina Faso.
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Charles B. Sombié
  • Charles B. Sombié
  • Laboratoire du Développement du Médicament, Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo. Burkina Faso.
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Sylvain Ilboudo
  • Sylvain Ilboudo
  • Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique. Burkina Faso.
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Zéphirin P. Dakuyo
  • Zéphirin P. Dakuyo
  • Laboratoires Phytofla. Burkina-Faso.
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and Innocent P. Guissou
  • and Innocent P. Guissou
  • Laboratoire du Développement du Médicament, Université Joseph Ki-Zerbo. Burkina Faso.
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  •  Received: 12 August 2020
  •  Accepted: 02 October 2020
  •  Published: 31 October 2020

Abstract

Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R. Br. ex Schult (Asclepiadaceae) and Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) are two plants used in Burkina Faso in traditional medicine and in the form of phytomedicine in the treatment of diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of aqueous ethanolic extracts of leaves of Gymnema sylvestre and Sclerocarya birrea on glycemia. A phytochemical screening of the extracts obtained by successive exhaustion after maceration of the leaves was carried out. The effect of these extracts was tested on basal plasma glucose and oral tolerance glucose in mice. Saponosides, tannins, flavonoids, sterol and triterpene glycosides, reducing compounds and coumarinic derivatives were found in the leaves of both plants. Alkaloids were also detected in the leaves of G. sylvestre and anthocyanosides in the leaves of S. birrea. The aqueous ethanolic extracts from leaves of G. sylvestre, S. birrea or both in combination at 100 mg/kg body per weight did not have a significant hypoglycemic effect on basal plasma glucose but significantly reduced (p<0.05; p<0.001) peak of hyperglycemia. The effect of the combination of the aqueous ethanolic extracts of the two plants on hyperglycemia is greater (47% reduction) than the effect of the aqueous ethanolic extracts of G. sylvestre (21% reduction) or S. birrea (36% reduction) alone. These results show that the combined use of G. sylvestre and S. birrea aqueous ethanolic extracts would be an asset in the treatment of diabetes.

Key words: Gymnema sylvestre, Sclerocarya birrea, oral glucose tolerance test, hypoglycemia, Antihyperglycemia.