The methanol extract of Ficus exasperata (stem bark, leaf and root) was investigated for activity against some human pathogenic organisms. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponin, tannins, steroids and phlobatannins with no traces of alkaloids and anthraquinones. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screening of the methanol extract exhibited a wide range of activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf methanol extract inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, and E. coli at concentrations of 5.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.25 mg/ml respectively, while the stem bark extract had minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 50 mg/ml on P. aeruginosa,1.0 mg/ml on S. typhi and 75 mg/ml on S. aureus. The extract from the root inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa at a concentration of 75 mg/ml and inhibitedS. typhi at concentration of 1.0 mg/ml, while S. aureus and E. coli were inhibited at a concentration of 1.25 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the leaf extract were obtained against P. aeruginosa, S. typhi S. aureus, and E. coliat concentration of 75, 1.0, 5.0 and 1.25 mg/ml respectively, while the extract from stem bark had the MBC against P. aeruginosa, and S. typhi at concentration of 75 and 1.25 mg/ml respectively. The bactericidal effects from the root extract were 50, 5.0, 1.5, 1.25 and 1.25 mg/ml against P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, S. aureus, E. coliand Vibrio cholerae respectively. The above results show that F. exasperata leaf, stem bark and root contained bioactive substances with the highest inhibitory activities against some human pathogenic organisms.
Key word: Ficus exasperata, phytochemical, antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration.
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