Regionalism and sub-regionalism are at present a fairly widespread phenomenon in Indian political system. As the various developmental programs are carried out, regional disparities are already becoming more marked and widespread engendering a sense of cumulative deprivations in the people of certain regions. This, coupled with increasing politicisation in the community, is sure to impart sharper focus to regionalism which would emerge more prominently as a factor of significance in Indian polity. Further, internal self-determination has remained the predominant form in which regionalism and sub-regionalism has sought to express itself. However, an attempt has been made in this paper to focus on the theoretical perspectives of regionalism and to find out how far and to what extent regionalism and sub-regionalism poses a challenge to the national politics in India asserting autonomy and self-determination and what are the basic factors influencing regionalism and sub-regionalism in the sub-continent. The paper concludes with some recent issues of regionalism in different parts of the country.
Key words: Regionalism, sub-regionalism, autonomy, identity, internal colonialism.