African Journal of
Political Science and International Relations

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pol. Sci. Int. Relat.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0832
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPSIR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 384

Full Length Research Paper

Ethnocentrism: Significance and effects on Kenyan society

Margaret Wanjiru Njoroge
  • Margaret Wanjiru Njoroge
  • Pan African Christian University, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Google Scholar
Gabriel Njoroge Kirori
  • Gabriel Njoroge Kirori
  • Faculty of Commerce, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 12 March 2013
  •  Accepted: 19 August 2014
  •  Published: 31 December 2014



Adorno TW (1982). The Authoritarian Personality, New York: W.W. Norton.
African Watch (1993). Divide and Rule: State-sponsored Ethnic Violence in Kenya, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Aquiline TSJ (2008). "Politization of ethnic identities and the common good in Kenya", text of a talk delivered April 2 at noon presentation on Kenya, the common good and the politization of ethnic identities.
Atiku A, Jenifer J, Yoku ST (2003). An Empirical Profile of Weak States in Sub-Sahara Africa, Africa Dev. 28(3,4):168-185.
Axelrod R (1986). An Evolutionary Approach to Norms, Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 80:1095-1111.
Axelrod R, Ross AH (2003). "The Evolution of EthnocetricBehaviour", a paper prepared for delivery at Midwest Political Science Convention, Chicago.
Ayedemo T (1993). Christian mind in: a changing Africa. Nairobi: AEAM.
Barash DP (1991). BELOVED Enemies: Our Need for Opponents, New York: Prometheus Books.
Barger K (2008). Ethnocentrism: Recognition and control of Ethnocentrism as a Basic Methodology for understanding ethnic behavior, both our own and others.
Bentley GC (1987). Ethnicity and practice, Comparative Studies in Society and History 29:24-55.
Brewer MB, Kramer RM (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 50:543-549.
Brewer MB (1979a). in-groups bias in the minimal inter-group situation. A cognitive motivational analysis, Psychol. Bull. 86:307-324.
Brown RJ (1988). Group processes: dynamics within and between groups. Oxford: Blackwell.
Cashdan E (2001). Ethnocentrism and xenophobia: a cross-cultural study, Curr. Anthropol. 42(5):760-765.
Chinchen D (1997). The Return of the Fourth "R" to Education: Relationships in Missiology, Int. Rev. 25:3.
Chirot D, Martin EPS (2001). Ethno Political Warfare: Cases, consequences, and Possible Solutions. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Cohen A (1981). The politics of elite culture: explanations in the dramaturgy of power in a modern African society. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
Coleman JS (1990). Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Council on Foreign Relations (2013). Electoral Violence in Kenya, Contingency Planning Memorandum. No. 17.
Dougherty J, Pratlzgraff R (1996). Contending Theories of International Relations: A Comprehensive Survey, Longman: NY.
Deutsch M (1990). Psychological Roots of Moral Exclusion, J. Soc. Issues 46:21-25.
Fisher RJ (1990). The Social Psychology of Intergroup and International Conflict, Springer-Verlag: New York.
Freud S (1930). Civilization and Its Discontents, James Strachey, New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Freud S (1921-1922). Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Gurr TR (2000). Peoples versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century, Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Gurr TR (1993a). Minorities AT Risk. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Gurr TR (1993b). Why Minorities Rebel: A Global Analysis of Communal Mobilization and Conflict since 1945, Int. Polit. Sci. Rev. 14:161-201.
Gurr TR (1970). Why Men Rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.
Gurr TR, Moore WH (1997). Ethnopolitical Rebellion: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the 1980s with Risk Assessments for the 1990s, Am. J. Polit. Sci. 41:1079-1103.
Guimareas AAS (1996). Racism and the restrictions of individual rights: Racial discrimination in the Brazilian Press.
Hamilton WD (1964). The General Evolution of Social Behaviour, J. Theor. Biol. 7:1-52.
Hardin R (2002). Trust and Trustworthiness. New York: Russell Sage.
Haugerud A (1995). The Culture of Politics in Modern Kenya, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hawke S (2013). Kenya's Elections in 2013: poverty, ethnicity, and violence, Advocates of Social Justice.
Holmquist F, Ayuka O (2001). Kenya: Democracy, Decline, and Despair, Curr. Hist. 100:646.
Hetcher M, Karl-Dieter Opp (2001).Social Norms. New York: Russell Sage.
Hobbes T (1651). Leviathan. New York: Collier Books Edition (1992).
Hooghe M, Ann T, Bart M, Tim R (2008). International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, MacMillan Reference, March 2008.
Howard JA (2000). Social Psychology of Identities Ann. Rev. Soc. 26:367-93.
Jhingan ML (2009). The Economics of Development and Planning, 39th Edition.Vrinda Publications Ltd: Delhi, India.
Kasomo D (2012). An assessment of ethnic conflict and its challenges today, Afr. J. Polit. Sci. Int. Relat. 6(1):1-7.
Kramer RM, Brewer MB (1984). Effects of Group Identity on Resource Utilization in simulated common dilemma, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 49:1044-1057.
Kukubor KB (2006). "Ethnicity, Discrimination and National Integration" www last downloaded 25th July 2008.
Kurzban R, Tooby J, Cosmides L (2001). "Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization", proceedings of the national academy of sciences US 98:15387-15392.
PMid:11742078 PMCid:PMC65039
Lactin DD (1998). Identity Formation. The Russian Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad. Ithca, NY: Cornell Universty Press.
Lamb D (1984). The Africans. New York: Vintage Books.
Levine RA, Campbell DT (1972). Ethnocentrism: Theories of Conflict, Ethnic Attitudes, and Group Behavior, John Wiles and Sons: New York.
Lonsdale J (1981). States and social process in Africa: A Historiography survey, Afr. Stud. Rev. 3(2):139
Lindstrom R, Moore WH (1995). Deprived, Rational or Both? Why Minorities Rebel'' Revisited, J. Polit. Mlitary Sociol. 23:167-190.
Monroe KR, James H, Bukovchik Van Vechten R (2000). The psychology foundations of identity politics, Annual Review of Polit. Sci. 3:419-447.
Ndegwa SN (1997). Citizenship and Ethnicity: An Examination of Two Transition Movements in Kenyan Politics Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 91(3):599–616.
Ndii D (2010). "Decentralization in Kenya: Background Note".
Nowak MA, Sigmund K (1998). Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring, Nature 393:573-577.
Ogretir AD, Sezai O (2008). The Study of Ethnocentrism, Stereotype and Prejudice: Psycho-analytical and Psycho-dynamic Theories, Journal of Qafqaz University.
Ostrom E (1998). A behavioral approach to the rational choice theory of collective action, Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 92:1-22.
Ott M (1998). Tradition, Modernity and the Future of African Theology J. Humanity p.2.
Putnam RD (2000). Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Rabbie JM (1991). A Behavioral Interaction Model: Toward a Social-Psychological Framework for Studying Terrorism, J. Terror. Polit. Violence 3(4):134-163.
Rothbart M, Lewis S (1994). Cognitive Processes and Intergroup Relations: A Historical Perspective, in the study of ethnocentrism, stereotype and prejudice: psycho-analtyical and psycho-dynamic theories, Ogretir and Ozcelik, Journal of Qafqaz University.
Saro-Wiwa K (1989). "Ethnicity and National Development", Alumni Lecture at University of Ibadan.
Seddens N (2011)."The Effects of Ethnocentrism in the Society", Helium, Inc.
Sheriff M (1961). Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robbers Cave Experiment. Norman, Oklahoma: Institute of Group Relations.
Shue H (1980). Subsistence, affluence, and US foreign policy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Smith A (1776). Wealth of Nations. New York: Modern Library Edition
Spence AM, Zeckhauser R (1971). Insurance, Information, and Industrial Action. Am. Econ. Rev. 61:380-387.
Sober E, David SW (1998). Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behaviour. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sumner WG (1906). Folkways. Boston, MA: Ginn.
Tajfel H (1982). Social identity and inter-group relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tajfel H (1981). Human Groups and Social Categories: Studies in Social Psychology, London: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor SE (1997). Social Psychology, Prentice Hall: NJ.
Taylor D, Moghaddam FM (1994). Theories of Intergroup Relations: International Social Psychology Perspectives, Praeger: London.
Tilly C (1992). Coercion, Capital, and European States, Ad 990-1992. Cambridge: Blackwll Publishers.
Tilly C (1978). From Mobilization to Revolution, Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
Trivers RL (1971). The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism, Q. Rev. Biol. 46:35-57.
Van der Dennen JMG (1995). The origin of War. Origin: Groningen Netherlands.
Van Dijk T (1993). Elite discourse and racism. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Volkan VD (1988). The Need to have Enemies and Allies: From Clinical Practice to International Relationships, N.J.: Jason Aronson.
Wakano K (1985). Coup de tat Resolutions and Power Struggles in Post-IndependenceAfrica. Nairobi: Afriscript Publishers.
Wa Wamwere K (2008). Towards Genocide in Kenya: The Curse of Negative Ethnicity. Nairobi: Mvule Publishers.
Yieke FA (2008). "The discursive construction of ethnicity: the case of the 2007 Kenya general election", 12th General Assembly, CODERSIA.
Yoku ST (2009). "Ethnocentrism and Communal Conflict in Africa".Racism Review.