International Journal of
Educational Administration and Policy Studies

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Educ. Admin. Pol. Stud.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6656
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJEAPS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 215

Full Length Research Paper

Utilization of Free Primary Education Funds in Public Primary Schools in Kenya: Exploring Administrative Antecedents

Linnet Beldina Ayako Namai
  • Linnet Beldina Ayako Namai
  • Department of Curriculum Instruction and Education Management, School of Education, Maasai Mara University, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 22 September 2015
  •  Accepted: 16 February 2016
  •  Published: 31 December 2018

 ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the administrative antecedents influencing the utilization of Free Primary Education funds in public primary schools within Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and used a study population comprising of head teachers, chairmen of the school management committees of public primary schools and teachers. A sample size of 52 public primary schools in which 52 chairmen of the school management committee, 52 head teachers and 104 teachers were used. The chairmen of the school management committee and head teachers were selected using purposive sampling technique while the teachers were selected using simple random sampling technique. The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data. Data collected was then analyzed through descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. The results were then presented in tabular summaries and charts for easier interpretation. The findings show that all head teachers, being the fund managers of the free primary education funds, had undertaken some form of financial training to enable them effectively utilize free primary education funds. However, the level of utilization of free primary education funds in public primary schools was not impressive. The main factors affecting the utilization of free primary education funds were mainly insufficient funding, delay in disbursements, high pupil enrolment levels and high cost of materials.

 

Key words: Administrative factors, utilization of free primary education funds, public primary schools, Nakuru Municipality.


 INTRODUCTION

Education is the inculcation in each generation of certain knowledge, skills and attitudes by means of institutions, such as schools, deliberately created for this end (Kaether, 1966). The Amman Mid-Decade Review of Education for All (EFA, 1996) reaffirmed the commitment to enhancement of education for all  persons  in  the  less industrialized countries. This was said to be particularly  so in Africa where ethnic tensions and conflicts have displaced many households thus denying children opportunities of going to school.
 
In April 2000 at the World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal, sub-Saharan  African  governments,  along with
 
governments from around the world, recommitted themselves to achieving Education for All. However, realizing that the target date of 2000 (agreed to in Jomtien, Thailand in 1990) would not be met, the African representatives postponed the realization of this commitment until 2015 (UNESCO, 1990). The Dakar Conference of 2000 in a quest to achieving Universal Primary Education (UPE) in the African continent set as one of the EFA goals “Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015” which was further endorsed by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Among other things, the conference delegates set targets “to ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling” (Republic of Kenya and United Nations, 2003).
 
Avenstrup et a. (2004) observed that during the 1990s, only three African countries came close to achieving Education for All: Malawi, Namibia and Uganda. The international commitment to EFA was given a further boost in 2001when the United Nations General Assembly adopted a road map toward implementation of the United Nations (UN) development declaration. In its second development goal, the declaration includes a commitment to the achievement of universal completed primary education (United Nations General Assembly, 2001).
 
Over the past decade, several countries in sub-Saharan Africa have abolished primary school tuition fees typically as part of renewed attempts to resurrect their education systems which have been on the decline, and even suffering reduced enrolments after the initial growth following Independence. Kenya is among the five African countries in Sub-Saharan Africa that have abolished primary school tuition (offering FPE) in an attempt to resurrect and strengthen their education systems (Riddell, 2003). The other four are Malawi in 1994, Uganda in 1997, Tanzania in 2001 and Zambia in 2002 (Riddell, 2003). The measure increased both gross and net enrolment rate significantly. Whereas in the 1980s and early to 1990s, cost-sharing had been a policy promoted by international financial institutions such as the World Bank, the direct (and indirect) costs to parents of their children’s education became obstacles to their attendance and continued enrolment.
 
The implementation of free primary education in Malawi is amidst challenges such as  loss of national vision,  corrosion of pupil, teacher, and parent relations, corruption (education for MP’s poverty alleviation),  politicization of the school and its staff, decline in “respect for authority”, increase in educational access, decline in educational quality for the poor (increase in private schooling for the rich), breakdown in school/state communication, decline in teacher professionalism, decline in the value of “being educated”(few jobs; educated people are “just sitting” and more business opportunities for youth since democratization) and increased   demands  on  parents  and  pupils  for  labour inputs (Kendall, 2003).
 
In early 2003, the Government of Kenya introduced free primary education (FPE), which meant the abolition of tuition fees, a part of the increasing costs of education to parents that had accounted largely for the decreasing primary and secondary school enrolments in the 1990s. Following this announcement, enrolments surged from about six million to about 7.2 million pupils, resulting in a gross enrolment rate of 104% compared with 87.6% in 2002. Before the Government’s pronouncement, the number of primary schools in the country had increased steadily from 14,864 in 1990 to 18,901 in 2001/2 representing a 27.2% increase. Net enrolment ratio rose in absolute terms had also up gone from 5,392,319 to 6,314,726, being a 17.1% rise over the same period and from around 6,314,726 to 7,614,326. It was also estimated that another 3 million children were not enrolled in school (Sifuna, 2003; Okwach, 1999).
 
The implementation of FPE, like similar interventions by previous governments, has been a matter of political expediency rather than a well thought out and planned reform. The National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) government, like its predecessors, did not carry out a situation analysis prior to the implementation of FPE. The consequences are: poor quality education as a result of overcrowding, lack of teachers and learning materials. The inefficient administration at the Ministry of Education Science and Technology (MoEST), which attempts to deal with problems relating to funding and infrastructure in an ad hoc manner only serves to exacerbate the situation. With these challenges, similar to those faced by previous governments, the attainment of UPE will continue to be illusionary. Apart from to the logistical problems in the implementation of FPE, the key question remains whether the programme is sustainable (Sifuna, 2003; Okwach, 1999).
 
In the 2003/04 financial year, the government increased its education budget by 17.4% to Kshs.79.4 billion, with over Kshs. 7.6 billion specifically allocated to the FPE programme. The donor community, which received the FPE policy with high enthusiasm, was quick to assist the government. The World Bank, for example, gave a grant of Kshs. 3.7 billion, while the British government through the Department for International Development gave Kshs. 1.6 billion. Other donors included the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Kshs. 1.2 billion, the Swedish government, Kshs. 430 million and UNICEF Kshs. 250 million. It goes without saying that such donor funding is usually temporary (Okwach, 1999).
 
The aim of the FPE programme is to provide opportunities, especially for the individuals from poor background. The argument was that the payment of school fees tended to prevent a large proportion of the children from attending school. However, whilst FPE has increased participation, it has at the same time created considerable problems. The success of the free primary education  programme  is  dependent  on the utilization of free primary education funds.  Yieke, (2006) postulates that lack of professionalism is a great challenge facing utilization of free primary education funds. The expanded role of head teachers in respect to Free Primary Education and their leadership styles have been cited as factors influencing utilization of free primary education funds in Kenya. Politics and unclear decision making process also emerged as challenges.
 
The same study also indicated that head teachers lacked financial education required for efficient management of the funds. Therefore, there was need for the government to review or develop a guiding policy towards ensuring that professionalism, proper leadership, and decision making processes are promoted in primary schools. At the same time, conditions laid down to request for concessions to institute levies are so cumbersome that they hesitate to embark on the process (Sifuna, 2003). It appears like FPE funds are not effectively utilized and therefore this study investigated this phenomena in Nakuru Municipality. The purpose of this study was to examine the administrative factors influencing utilization of FPE funds in public primary schools of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya.

 


 METHODOLOGY

The study was carried out in public primary schools within Nakuru Municipality amongst public primary school head teachers, School Management Committees (SMC), Chairmen and teachers, since they were directly involved in implementation of the FPE programme of schools in Nakuru municipality. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The purpose of descriptive research is description of state of affairs of the variables examined, as they exist (Kombo and Tromp, 2006). It is a method of collecting information by interviewing or administering a questionnaire to a sample of individuals (Orodho, 2003). The design was chosen because it was an efficient method of collecting descriptive data regarding characteristics of a sample of a population, current practices, conditions or needs. 
 
The target population of the study was public primary schools within Nakuru municipality. The municipality comprised of 5 zones (Western, Central, Eastern, Northern and Southern) and a total of 59 public schools. The study targeted different public schools spread in different environments within the municipality. The target population comprised of the primary Chairmen of the SMC, school head teachers, and teachers who were involved in management of schools in Nakuru municipality.
 
The study adopted multi stage sampling approach, whereby after determination of the study sample, the sub sample was determined. The study used a sample size of 52 primary schools basing on the Krejcie and Morgan (1970) sample size. The procedure involved two stages. Stage 1 was the determination of the study sample, while stage 2 was the determination of the sub sample. Cluster sampling was used in the selection of the sub sample. The clusters included chairmen of the SMC, head teachers and teachers. All Head teachers and chairmen of the SMC of the target sample (52 schools) were interviewed.  The teachers sample was selected using simple random sampling technique, whereby 2 teachers per school was selected from 52 primary schools; that is, one teacher representing lower primary and the other representing upper primary. This gave us 52 Chairmen of the SMC, 52 Head teachers and 104 teachers.  This  translated  to  a  target  population  of  208 respondents in this study.
 
An interview schedule was used in the collection of data from the chairmen of the SMC. The interview schedule captured information related to the perspective of the chairmen of the SMC in regard to the utilization of the FPE funds at their schools.  The study also used two sets of questionnaires containing both structured and unstructured questions.  One set was used in the collection of data from the school managers (Head teachers), while the other was used for the teachers. The purpose of the questionnaires was to obtain information related to factors influencing the utilization of the Free Primary Education funds. The researcher personally administered the data collection process; whereby the instruments were completed in the presence of the researcher.
 
According to Mutai (2000), an instrument can be validated by proving that its items or questions are representative of the skills or characteristics that it is intended to measure. Content validity was established using experts to determine if the items were a representative sample of the skills and traits that comprised the area to be measured. The experts provided guidance on the content of the instruments that is ensuring that all the research objectives have been addressed by the questions or information sought in the instruments. The manner of construction of the questionnaires was checked to ensure that the questions were not misinterpreted and only relevant information was obtained. The findings from the pilot study were used to improve on the questionnaires, thus enhancing their validity.
 
Reliability of an instrument is the degree of consistency with which it measures a variable (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). To check their reliability, the two sets of questionnaires were pilot-tested amongst the school managers (Head Teachers), parents and SMC chairmen.  A pilot study was carried out in 5 neighbouring schools in the study area. The findings of the pre-test were then analyzed to find out if the instruments were reliable in answering the key research questions. The results of the pre-test survey helped in restructuring of the questionnaire by incorporating the missing information, omitting irrelevant questions and paraphrasing questions that appear ambiguous to the respondents. The researcher created an atmosphere conducive to the Head Teachers and teachers, to enable them open up and answer the questions asked correctly.
 
As an ethical consideration, the researcher obtained an introduction letter from the graduate school of Mt Kenya University to get a research permit from the National Council for Science and Technology (NCST). Prior to the commencement of data collection, the Municipal Education Office was informed of the planned data collection exercise so as to get necessary cooperation from the respondents. A letter of introduction to the respondents stating the purpose of the study and assuring them of confidentiality of information provided was also prepared. Bookings were made through the head teachers of the selected schools prior to the data collection exercise. The study carried out the data collection exercise within a period of two weeks. The two sets of questionnaires and interview schedule administered were distributed to the identified and selected public primary schools. 


 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

The findings revealed that all the head teachers (100%) had received some form of financial training.  The finding showed that 20% had undertaken financial and leadership training, 18% indicated that they had financial manage-ment at school level, 16% had undertaken book keeping and budgeting, 16% had attended workshops on financial management, 8% human resource management, 8% cash   book   balancing,   8%   prism,   whereas   4%  had undertaken management, while 4% had undertaken spred. According to Franklin (2002), school managers need to be trained to equip them with the relevant skills and techniques to prepare them to be effective in implementation of educational policies. However, this finding is not in agreement with Cheruto and Wambua, (2010) who posit that most head teachers had not been trained on financial management and worse still they were not inducted on introduction of FPE and this affected utilization of FPE funds.
 
The SMC chairmen were asked to describe the utilization of FPE funds at their school and the findings revealed that most of the respondents 31% described utilization of FPE funds as effective, 25% described it as slightly effective, 24% described it as moderately effective, 12% described it as not effective, while 8% described it as very effective. The interpretation was that most of the SMC chairpersons described the utilization of FPE as effective. This finding points towards favourable performance and which needs to be enhanced.  
 
The teachers were asked through lead statements to describe the management styles used by the school management and a majority of the respondents (69%) agreed to the statement that head teachers sought ideas and inputs from teachers on upcoming plans and project while 31% disagreed. Majority of the respondents (69%) agreed to the statement that teachers were included in making major decisions while 31% strongly agreed. The study further revealed that majority of the respondents (69%) disagreed to the statement that the head teacher had the final say over decisions made within their group, while 31% were neutral. It was further established that that majority of the respondents (53%) agreed to the statement that the Head teacher had the final say over decisions made within their group. The head teacher considers suggestions made by others in the group, 22% were neutral, 18% disagreed, while 8% strongly agreed. The study also showed that majority of the respondents (67%) agreed that the head teacher told staff members what to do, how to do it, and when to do, so long as school goals are met, 21% disagreed, while 12% were neutral.
 
The study sought to investigate the strain on resources and the result is given in Table 1. According to the finding, It was also established that  majority (70%) of the respondents agreed that the number of pupils enrolled in the school was so high thus affecting  utilization of the FPE funds, 25% were neutral, while 6% strongly agreed, and 7% agreed. It implied that most schools in Nakuru Municipality had experienced high pupil enrolment levels and this was affecting utilization of the FPE funds.
 
Majority (70%) of the respondents agreed that the number of pupils enrolled in the school was so high thus affecting effective utilization of the FPE funds, 25% were neutral, while 6% strongly agreed, and 7% agreed. It also, implied that most schools in Nakuru Municipality had experienced high pupil  enrolment  levels.  This  is  in agreement with Sifuna (2003) who found out that as a result of the free primary education, the situation of the teaching force in most of the districts was generally bad. Teachers complained of increased pupil teacher ratios. Many primary schools were understaffed as a result of the free primary education programme. This did not augur well for the quality of education being delivered. Many school management committees were of the opinion that as a result on the ban of levies, they were unable to recruit extra teachers through the PTAs and this has also seriously affected the pre-school units.
 
The findings showed that majority of the respondents (58%) agreed that teachers lack motivation to provide quality services amidst limited funds in school, 30% strongly agreed, while 12% were neutral. This implied that teachers in most schools were not motivated and this was affecting effective utilization of FPE funds.  The findings showed that majority of the respondents (59%) were neutral to the fact small size of classrooms was a hindrance to the utilization of the FPE funds, 40% agreed and 1% strongly agreed. The interpretation was that the size of classroom was a problem affecting the utilization of FPE funds in most schools and therefore needed to be addressed.
 
The findings revealed that 89% of the respondents agreed that limited number of educational support equipment was a hindrance to the utilization of the FPE funds, 10% disagreed, while 1% were neutral. This implied that provision for education support equipment was not adequate in most schools and this was affecting the utilization of the FPE funds. The administrative challenges experienced by the school in regard to the utilization of FPE funds were also identified from the SMC’s perspective and the finding is given in Table 2.
 
According to the findings, the administrative challenges experienced by the school in regard to the utilization of FPE funds were as follows:
 
1. Insufficient funding (53%)
2. Delay in disbursements (37%)
3. High pupil enrolment levels (33%)
4. High cost of materials (31%)
5. Teaching staff not enough (31%)
6. Illiteracy of some committee members (16%)
7. Time frame maladjustments in vote-books (12%)
8. School demands are as per vote (RMI) (12%)
 
 
Teachers were asked to what extent they felt leadership style used by the school management negatively affected utilization of FPE, and most of the respondents (47%) felt that leadership style used at the school affected utilization of FPE to a large extent, 28% indicated to a very large extent, while 25% indicated to a small extent.  These implied that most teachers were not comfortable with the leadership style used by the school head teachers and that they felt that this had a negative effect on  proper  utilization  of  FPE  funds. This   situation  was worrying and needed to be investigated further; since as Cheruto and Wambua (2010) argue, without dynamic leadership on the part of the heads, who develop a clear vision for their schools and who communicate it well to their staff in such a way as to mobilize all members so that they all take part in school-based development, effective improvement in schools cannot occur. This is an argument supported by Maicibi (2005) who contends that, without a proper leadership style, effective performance cannot be realized in schools. Even if the  school  has  all the required instructional materials and financial resources, it will not be able to use them effectively, if the students are not directed in their use, or if the teachers who guide in their usage are not properly trained to implement them effectively.
 
The study sought to investigate the administrative factors affecting effective utilization of the FPE funds and the findings indicated that a majority of the respondents (70%) agreed that the number of pupils enrolled in the school was so  high  thus  affecting  effective utilization of the FPE funds, 25% were neutral, while 6% strongly agreed. The interpretation here was that enrollment levels were high, thus impeding quality utilization of FPE funds. The study also found out that majority of the respondents (81%) agreed that available teaching resources did not match the pupil population, 15% strongly agreed, while 4% were neutral. The interpretation here was that enrollment levels were high, thus impeding quality utilization of FPE funds. Hence the interpretation was that available teaching resources were inadequate.
 
It was also established that majority of the respondents (76%) agreed that individual attention to the pupils was limited due to the large size of classes, 23% strongly agreed, while 1% were neutral. The interpretation here was that enrollment levels were high, thus impeding quality utilization of FPE funds. Hence the interpretation was that individual attention to the pupils was limited due to the large size of classes. This was brought about by high enrollment levels. This means that the fact that available teaching resources were not enough for the pupil population did not influence utilization of FPE funds in most schools, while individual attention to the pupils was limited due to the large size of classes, hence influencing utilization of FPE funds at school. This shown in the report by a 2003 UNESCO and Kenya government study which revealed an increase in enrolments in private schools within the Langas slum area of Eldoret. Notable in the report was that since FPE implementation, many private schools had sprung up in the community. Many of the students in these schools had transferred from government schools because they were too congested, with unacceptably high student/teacher ratios and, consequently, low educational standards. Private schools were filling a substantial niche within the overall primary education system in Eldoret.
 
According to the findings, majority of respondents (58%) agreed that teachers lacked motivation to provide quality services amidst limited funds in school, 30% strongly agreed, while 12% were neutral. The interpretation here was that teachers lacked motivation ad this affect proper utilization and management of resources provided by FPE. This means that lack of teacher motivation influenced utilization of FPE funds at school. This is in agreement with Namirembe, (2005) who argued that in some schools in Uganda in the advent of free education there was increasing poor performance in mainly the science subjects. The poor performance in the said subjects was attributed partly to poor leadership at the school level. Since teacher morale and welfare is so low at present many of them are forced to work at more than one school.
 
According to the findings, majority of the respondents (50%) agreed that learning and teaching resources are not availed in time for use thus affecting effective utilization of the FPE funds, 27% strongly agreed, while 23% disagreed. The interpretation here was that there was a delay in availing teaching  and  learning  resources and this affected utilization of the FPE funds through  associated delays. It was also established that majority of the respondents (59%) were neutral to the statement that small size of classrooms was a hindrance to the effective utilization of the FPE funds, 40% agreed, while 1% strongly agreed. The interpretation here was that small size of classrooms was a hindrance to the effective utilization of the FPE funds. This was brought about by high enrollment levels.
 
The study also found out that majority of the respondents (52%) disagreed to the statement that limited number of desks and chairs for pupils was a hindrance to the effective utilization of the FPE funds, 48% agreed. The interpretation here was that enrollment levels were high, thus impeding quality utilization of FPE funds. Hence the interpretation was that limited number of desks and chairs for pupils was a hindrance to the effective utilization of the FPE funds. According to the findings, majority of the respondents (89%) agreed that limited number of educational support equipment was hindrance to the effective utilization of the FPE funds, 1% were neutral, while 10% disagreed. The interpretation here was limited number of educational support equipment was hindrance to the effective utilization of the FPE funds.
 
The study also established that majority of the respondents (63%) agreed that lack of adequate facilities (text books and exercise books and pupil uniforms is also an hindrance to the effective utilization of the FPE funds, 22% strongly agreed, 15% were neutral, while 1% disagreed. The interpretation here was that lack of adequate facilities (text books and exercise books and pupil uniforms is also a hindrance to the effective utilization of the FPE funds (Table 3).
 
This section contains the findings in respect to objective 3, which sought to assess strategies put in place to mitigate administrative factors and utilization of FPE funds in primary schools in Nakuru Municipality.  The findings are presented in Table 4 and Table 5. This is presented according to the head teachers and according to the chairmen of SMC.  The study sought to find out from the head teachers what strategies could be put in place to mitigate administrative factors in utilization of FPE funds in primary schools in Table 4.
 
The number of times the remedies are cited by the head teachers is given in Table 5, this is reported in percentages as follows: requesting for parental support (top ups) (29%), follow the vote heads (27%), involving all key stakeholders (25%), prioritization of school needs (24%), regular meetings (22%), ensuring transparency (22%), involvement of school committee members to oversee  use of funds (20%), all purchased materials are under the care of parents and teachers (18%), budgeting (16%), periodical reviews of expenditure (12%), seeking for donors (12%), consultation before use of funds (10%), assign the responsibilities of damages by children to parents  (10%)  and  sensitizing  parents  on  the   role  of monitoring school projects(6%). The chairmen of the school management pointed out that in the quest to tackle these administrative challenges the schools affected could adopt the following solutions and the finding is given in Table 5. According to the findings, the SMC chairmen proposed the following strategies in solving administrative challenges impeding utilization of FPE funds: communication of parental obligations / soliciting support (31%), advocate for timely disbursement of funds (29%), mobilizing funds from donors (20%), training  of  head   teachers   in   accounting  (16%),  fund raising through well wishers (12%), in service  in record keeping (10%), ensuring proper allocation of money to the vote-heads (8%), construction of more buildings (8%), sensitizing parents on positive attitude towards materials (6%), construction of materials store (4%), SMC bearers should be given seminars (4%), P. T. A -Help (2%).
 
 


 CONCLUSION

The  study  determined   the   administrative   factors  that  influence utilization of FPE funds in public primary schools in Nakuru Municipality. It established how administrative factors influenced utilization of FPE funds in public primary schools, and suggested the strategies that can be put in place to mitigate administrative factors in utilization of FPE funds in public primary schools in Nakuru Municipality. Following the findings, the study had the following conclusions:
 
1. The main administrative factors affecting the utilization of FPE funds in public primary schools in Nakuru Municipality were: insufficient funding, delay in dis-bursements, high pupil enrolment levels, high cost of materials, inadequate teaching materials, lack of teacher motivation teaching staff not enough, and illiteracy of some school committee members.
2. The administrative factors identified in this study, negatively influenced utilization of FPE funds in public primary schools in Nakuru Municipality teaching resources did not match the pupil population individual attention to the pupils was limited due to the large size of classes learning and teaching resources are not availed in time for use thus affecting effective utilization of the FPE funds. The level of utilization of FPE funds in public primary schools in Nakuru Municipality was not impressive. Most chairpersons of the SMC for instance described utilization of Free Primary Education funds as either ineffective or slightly effective.
3. The strategies used by school managers of public primary schools in Nakuru Municipality in mitigating administrative factors impeding utilization of FPE funds included requesting for parental support, following the vote heads, involving all key stakeholders, prioritization of school needs, regular meetings, ensuring transparency,  and involvement of school committee members to oversee  use of FPE funds.
4. The findings show that all head teachers, being the fund managers of the FPE funds, had undertaken some form of financial training to  enable  them  properly  utilize FPE funds. These courses or forms of training included financial and leadership training, financial management at school level, book keeping and budgeting, financial management, human resource management, cash book balancing, PRISM, SPRED and Management.


 RECOMMENDATIONS

Following the findings, the study recommended the following:
 
1. The Government of Kenya (Ministry of Education) should consider mobilizing resources to increase the allocation disbursed to schools. This is in order to enhance its capacity to increase allocation of funding to public primary schools, subsequently, improving the efficacy of school head teachers in utilization of FPE funds.
2. The Ministry of Education should consider organizing more financial education and management training and workshops for the school head teachers and all persons involved in the utilization of FPE funds. This can be actualized if stakeholders in the Ministry are sensitized on the value of organizing such events or forums; that is, the need to enhance the head teachers capacity in utilization of FPE funds. The school management committee chairpersons and also other SMC members need to be reached.
3. The school management teams should consider organizing regular meetings with parents to enhance effective communication of parental obligations and thus encourage their support to school projects and programmes linked to the utilization of FPE funds. The school management committee chairpersons and other committee members need to be encouraged to communicate to other parents on this aspect, clearly.
4. The school management teams should consider getting in touch with  other fundraising options such as donors so
as to tackle issues such as additional classrooms to cater
for the high pupil enrolment experienced in most schools, or in general infrastructural support hence, enhancing utilization of FPE funds.

 


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The authors have not declared any conflict of interests.

 



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