The ABO and Rh (D) blood type distributions vary from one ethnic group to another. However, they play an essential part in population genetics studies, blood transfusion practices and certain medico-legal cases. Thus, this study is aimed to assess ABO and Rh (D) blood group distribution patterns among Natural and Computational Science faculty graduating class students in Woldia University and to document a blood group database and creating awareness among blood donors for safe transfusion. To this end, blood samples from 429 (N=560) volunteer students were taken during the period of 1st February 2020 to 28th April 2020 blood donation campaign and observational cross sectional study design was performed. ABO and Rh (D) typing was done by antigen-antibody agglutination test using commercially available and standard anti-sera. Descriptive statistical measures on phenotypic frequency of ABO and Rh (D) blood types were described in simple percentages. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of the ABO and Rh blood groups were estimated using the assumption of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. The ABO and Rh (D) blood phenotypes respectively were found to be A (28.20%) > B (25.40%) > AB (24.70%) > O (21.67%) and Rh+ (60.13%) > Rh- (39.86%) and the combined ABO/Rh(D) blood groups were in the order A+ (16.31%) > B+ (15.85%) > O+ (14.21%) > AB+ (13.75%) and A- (11.88%) >AB- (10.95%) > B- (9.55%) > O- (7.45%). The allelic frequencies of IA (P), IB (q), IO(r) respectively were 0.314, 0.2939 and 0.4655. The allelic frequencies for ID = 0.3687 and for Id = 0.6313 were found. A genotypic frequency of IAIO was the most frequent (0.2923) and IBIB was the least frequent (0.0863). Whereas, IDId was most frequent (0.4655) and IDID was the least frequent (0.1359). The observed and expected frequencies of individuals having ABO blood group showed no significant difference (χ2 = 35.4381, df = 3; P < 0.05) and Rh (D) blood phenotypes of individuals were significantly different (χ2 = 0.000011, df = 1; P < 0.05), thus, not fitting Hardy-Weinberg assumptions. The data obtained in the present study could be used as important input for blood bank services to have better blood management and safe blood transfusion practices in different regions of Ethiopia and abroad in the future.
Key words: ABO, allele, blood donors, blood groups, distribution, genotype, Rh (D), Woldia University.
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