International Journal of
Livestock Production

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Livest. Prod.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2448
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJLP
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 265

Full Length Research Paper

Haemorrhagic septicaemia outbreaks in cattle with high mortality following wrong vaccinations in Adamawa and Taraba States, Nigeria

Garba Ahmed
  • Garba Ahmed
  • Diagnostics and Extension Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.
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Mohammed A. Qadeer
  • Mohammed A. Qadeer
  • Department of Zoology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.
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Moses O. Odugbo
  • Moses O. Odugbo
  • Bacterial Research Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria
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Christianah I. Odita
  • Christianah I. Odita
  • Diagnostics and Extension Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.
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Olabisi A. Makanju
  • Olabisi A. Makanju
  • Diagnostics and Extension Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.
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Abdulazeez O. Najeem
  • Abdulazeez O. Najeem
  • Zonal Veterinary Clinic Funtua, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Katsina State – Nigeria
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Lami Galadima
  • Lami Galadima
  • Solomon Memorial Veterinary Services, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria
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Philips A. Okewole
  • Philips A. Okewole
  • Diagnostics and Extension Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.
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Mohammed S. Ahmed
  • Mohammed S. Ahmed
  • Diagnostics and Extension Department, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 20 September 2015
  •  Accepted: 19 January 2016
  •  Published: 31 January 2016

Abstract

Two outbreaks of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) following wrong administration of contagious bovine pleuro pneumonia (CBPP) vaccine (CBPPV) combined with black quarter vaccine (BQV) and administration of CBPPV alone, respectively were investigated in cattle herds in Adamawa and Taraba States of Nigeria. Two of the nomadic Fulani cattlemen independently purchased the CBPP and BQ vaccines in October, 2006 at the Zonal Investigation Laboratory, National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Yola, Adamawa State. One of the farmers employed the services of a livestock attendant who diluted each lyophilized CBPP vaccine in a 100 ml of BQV and inoculated 181 cattle each with 1 ml of the formulation in the Mayo lope village of Taraba State. Thereafter, the animals began to show signs of respiratory complications and swelling at the site of inoculation. A total of 125 cattle died 1 to 5 days post inoculation. The second farmer kept a vial of the CBPPV at room temperature for 24 h, then diluted and administered twice the normal dose each to 50 cattle in Yadim area of Adamawa State. A day later, 17 cattle died and in 3 days a total of 35 have died or salvaged. Clinical and laboratory investigations confirmed the presence of Pasteurella multocida Type E2 in both cases. Administration of a broad spectrum antibiotic ‘PENSTREP’ (a combination of Procaine Penicillin and Streptomycin HCL) for three days in both outbreaks brought the death toll to halt. Sub-clinical or underlying HS disease exacerbated by stress due to multiple and improperly inoculated vaccines has been identified as the most probable cause of death in these animals. The use of PENSTREP has proved efficacious in the treatment of field HS outbreaks. Adherence of cattle owners to their local veterinarians for assessment and guidance before vaccination or under his supervision is highly recommended.

 

Key words: Haemorrhagic septicaemia outbreak, cattle, vaccination, Nigeria.