International Journal of
Livestock Production

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Livest. Prod.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2448
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJLP
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 193

Full Length Research Paper

Feed resources assessment, laboratory evaluation of chemical composition of feeds and livestock feed balance in enset (Ensete ventricosum)-based mixed production systems of Gurage zone, southern Ethiopia

Dirsha Demam Wonchesa
  • Dirsha Demam Wonchesa
  • Department of Animal Production and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Wolkite University, P. O. Box 07, Wolkite, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Ashenafi Mengistu Wossen
  • Ashenafi Mengistu Wossen
  • Department of Animal Production, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 34, Bishoftu, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Gebeyehu Goshu Negia
  • Gebeyehu Goshu Negia
  • Department of Animal Production, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 34, Bishoftu, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 26 January 2018
  •  Accepted: 04 April 2018
  •  Published: 30 June 2018


Adoption in the Mixed Farming System in Arsi highland, Ethiopia. PhD. Dissertation. Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany. 146p.


Adugna T, Said AN (1994). Assessment of feed resources in Walayta Sodo. Ethiopian J. Agric. Science. 14(1/2):69-87.


Ahmed H (2006). Assessment and Utilization Practice of Feed Resources in Basona Worana Woreda of North Shoa. MSc. Thesis. Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 131p.


Alemayehu M (1985). Feed resources in Ethiopia. In: Animal feed resources for small-scale livestock producers. Proceedings of the second PANESA workshop, held in Nairobi, Kenya. 11-15 November 1985. P 35.


Alemayehu M (2004). Pasture and Forage Resource profiles of Ethiopia. Ethiopia/FAO. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. P 19.


Alemayehu M (2005). Feed Resources Base of Ethiopia: Status Limitations and opportunities for integrated development. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP), August 12-14, 2004. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Alemu T (1990). The Unexploited Potential of Improved Forages in the Mid-altitude and Lowland areas of Ethiopia. In: Utilization of Research Results on Forage and Agricultural By product Materials as Animal feed resource in Africa. Proceedings of the first Joint work shop held in Lilongwe, Malawi, 5-9 December 1988. 833 p.


Alemu Y, Zinash S, Seyoum B (1989). The Potentials of Crop Residue and Agro-Industrial by-products as animal feed. pp. 57-64. Proceedings of the Third National Livestock Improvement Conference. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 24-26 May 1989. Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR).


Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1990). Official methods of Analysis. (15th edition). AOAC Inc., Arlington, Virginia, USA. 957 p.


Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1995). Official Methods of Analysis. (16th edition). Washington DC. pp. 5-13.


Azage T (2004). Urban livestock production and gender in Addis Ababa. Urban Agriculture Magazine, number 12, MEI, 2004. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Azage T, Alemu G (1998). Prospects for peri-urban dairy development in Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of 5th national conference of Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 15–17 May 1997. P 248.


Bayush T, Adugna T, Trygve B (2008). Livestock production and feed resource constraints in Akaki and Lume Districts of Central Ethiopia. Outlook on Agriculture 37(1):15-21.


Behnke R (2010). The Contribution of Livestock to the Economies of IGAD Member States: Study Findings, Application of the Methodology in Ethiopia and Recommendations for Further Work, IGAD LPI Working Paper 02-10. Odessa Centre, IGAD Livestock Policy Initiative, Great Wolford, UK.


Bekele S (1991). Crop livestock interactions in the Ethiopian highlands and effects on sustainability of mixed farming: a case study from Ada district, Debrezeit. MSc. Thesis. Agricultural University of Norway, Oslow, Norway. 163 p.


Belay D, Janssens GPJ (2016). Assessment of feed resources, feeding practices and coping strategies to feed scarcity by smallholder urban dairy producers in Jimma town, Ethiopia.


Berhanu G, Adane H, Kahsay B (2009). Feed marketing in Ethiopia: Results of rapid market appraisal. Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) of Ethiopian farmers project Working Paper 15. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. p 64.


Beriso K, Berihan T, Teka F (2015). Characterization of Smallholder Cattle Milk Production System in Aleta Chukko District, Southern Ethiopia. J. Adv. Dairy Res. 3:1-8.


Brandt S, Spring AA, Hiebsch C, McCabe T, Endale T, Mulugeta D, Gizachew W, Gebre Y, Shigeta M, Shiferaw T (1997). The tree Against Hunger: Enset-based agricultural systems in Ethiopia. American Association for the Advancement of Science with Awassa Agricultural Research Center, Koyoto University Center for African Area Studies and University of Florida. Directorate for International Programs 1200 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20005.


Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development (BoARD) (2009). Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples' Region, Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development. Livestock products assessment manual, Hawassa, Ethiopia.


Buxton DR, Russell JR (1988). Lignin constituents and cell-wall digestibility of grass and legume stems. J. Crop Sci. 28:553-558.


Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2008). Agricultural Sample Survey, 2007/08 (2000 E.C.), Volume II: Report on Livestock and livestock characteristics (Private peasant holdings). Statistical Bulletin 417. Central Statistical Agency (CSA). Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.


Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2013a). Agricultural Sample Survey, 2012/13 (2005 E.C.). Volume II: Report on Livestock and livestock characteristics (Private peasant holdings). Statistical Bulletin 570. Central Statistical Agency (CSA). Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.


Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2013b). Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency Population Projection of Ethiopia for all Regions at Woreda Level from 2014 – 2017. August 2013. Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.


Chalchissa G, Mekasha Y, Urge M (2014). Feed Resources, Quality and Feeding Practices in Urban and Peri-Urban Dairy Production of Southern Ethiopia. Trop. Subtrop. Agroecosyst. 17(3):539-546


Church DC, Pond WC (1982). Basic Animal Nutrition and Feeding Record. John Wiley and Sons, U.S.A. 1135 p.


Cochran GW (1909). Sampling techniques (3rd edition). John Wiley and Sons.


Dawit A, Ajebu N, Sandip B (2013). Assessment of feed resource availability and livestock production constraints in selected Kebeles of Adami Tullu Jiddo Kombolcha District, Ethiopia. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 8(29):4067-4073.


De Leeuw PN, Tothill JC (1990). The concept of rangeland carrying capacity in Sub-Saharan Africa-myth or reality. Pastoral Development Network Paper 29b. Overseas development Institute, London.


Department of Agriculture and Natural Resource Development (DANRD) (2016). Annual report. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resource Development, Wolkite, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia.


Department of Finance and Economic Development (DOFED) (2015). Socio economy abstract document of Gurage zone 2015. Department of Finance and Economic Development. Wolkite, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia.


Dereje D, Debela K, Wakgari K, Zelalem D, Gutema B, Gerba L, Adugna T (2014). Assessment of livestock production system and feed resources availability in three villages of Diga district, Ethiopia. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute).


Dereje F (1996). .Potential of Enset (Ensete ventricosum) in ruminant Nutrition in Ethiopia, MSc. Thesis. USA, Uppsala.


Ekwe KC, Nwachukwu I (2006). Influence of household factors on the Utilization of Improved Garri Processing Technology in Southeastern Nigeria. J. Agric. Ext. 9:134-141


Ensminger RE, Oldfield JE, Heineman WW (1990). Feed and Nutrition. (2nd edition). The Ensminger publishing company. 1151 p.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (1984). Master Land use Plan, Ethiopia Range/Livestock Consultancy Report prepared for the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Technical Report. AG/ETH/82/010 FAO, Rome. 94p.


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (1987). Land use, production regions, and farming systems inventory. Technical report. FAO project ETH/78/003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1(3):98.


Funte S, Negesse T, Legesse G (2010). Feed resources and their management systems in Ethiopian highlands: The case of Umbulo Wacho watershed in Southern Ethiopia. Trop. Subtrop. Agro ecosys. 12(2010):47-56.


Gashaw G (1992). Assessment of feed resources base and performance of crossbred dairy cows distributed to Smallholder in the Selale Dairy Development Project Area. MSc.Thesis. Alemaya University of Agriculture, Ethiopia.


Getahun D (2012). Assessment of the Livestock Extension Service in Ethiopia: The Case of Southern Region. Int. J. Sci. Technol. Res. 1(10):24-30.


Goering HK, Van Soest PJ (1970). Forage fiber analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures, and some applications). USDA Agricultural Research Service. Agriculture Handbook No. 379.


Gryseels G (1988). Role of Livestock on a Mixed Smallholder Farms in Debre Berhan, PhD. Dissertation. Agricultural University of Wageningen, The Netherlands. 249 p.


Haile W, Zelalem Y, Yosef T (2012). Challenges and opportunities of milk production under different urban dairy farm sizes in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 7(26):3860-3866


Halderman M (2004). "The Political Economy of Pro-Poor Livestock Policy-Making in Ethiopia" .Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative (FAO). Series Number.19 n. pag. Print.


Kearl LC (1982). Nutrient Requirement of Ruminants in Developing Countries. International Feed stuffs Institute, Utah Agricultural Experiment Station. Utah State University, Longman 84322. USA, 381 p.


Kellems RO, Church DC (1998). Livestock Feeds & Feeding. (4th edition.). Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey, USA. 573 p.


Kimball T (2011). "Livestock Production Systems and their Environmental Implications in Ethiopia. "Environmental Policy Review 2011. A report produced by the Environmental Policy Group in the Environmental Studies Program. Colby College. Waterville, Maine.


Lemma F, Fekadu B, Hegde PB (2005). Rural Smallholders Milk and Dairy Products Production, Utilization and Marketing Systems in East Shoa Zone of Oromiya. pp. 17-28. In: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Little DA (1982). Utilization of minerals. Nutritional limits to animal production from pastures. Proceeding of an International Workshop Held at St. Lucia, Queens land, Australia. 24-28 August 1981.Common wealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, UK.


McCarthy G (1986). Donkey Nutrition. In: J.D. Reed and B.S. Capper and J.H. Neate (eds.). The professional Hand book of the Donkey (Compiled for the donkey sanctuary).Sid mouth (UK). 248 p.


McDonald P, Edwards RA, Greenhalgh JFD, Morgan CA (1995). Animal Nutrition.(5th edition). Longman Group, Harlow, United Kingdom. 607p.


Mekuanint G, Girma D (2017). Livestock feed resources, nutritional value and their implication on animal productivity in mixed farming system in Gasera and Ginnir Districts, Bale Zone, Ethiopia. Int. J. Livest. Prod. 8(2):12-23.


Menbere AS (2014). Livestock feeds and feeding system in Enset (Ensete ventricosum) dominated mixed farming system of southern Ethiopia. Online J. Anim. Feed Res. 4(6):150-158.


Metaferia F, Cherenet T, Gelan A, Abnet F, Tesfay A, Ali JA, Gulilat W (2011). A Review to Improve Estimation of Livestock Contribution to the National GDP. Ministry of Finance and Economic Development and Ministry of Agriculture. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Improved Garry Processing Technology in Southeastern Nigeria.


Milford R, Minson DJ (1966). The relation between the crude protein content and the digestible crude protein of tropical pasture plants. J. Br. Grassland Society 20:177-183.


Minale G, Yilkal T (2015). Constraints and Opportunities of Dairy Cattle Production in Chencha and Kucha Districts, Southern Ethiopia. J. Biol. Agric. Healthcare 5(15).


Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MoARD) (2008). Livestock Development Master Plan Study. Phase I reports on dairy, feed, nutrition, health and policies & institutions. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) (1984). Energy allowances and feeding systems for ruminants. Reference Book 413 HMOs, London, 85p.


Misgana D, Gebeyehu G, Gebreyohannes B (2015). Characterization of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Production Systems in Selected Districts of east Wollega zone, Ethiopia. World J. Dairy Food Sci.10(2):95-109.


Mulugeta A (2005). Characterization of Dairy Production Systems of Yerer watershed in Ada Liben Woreda of Oromiya Region, Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis. Alemaya University. 140 pp.


Negassa A, Rashid S, Gebremedhin B (2011). Livestock Production and Marketing.ESSP II Working Paper 26. International Food Policy Research Institute/ Ethiopia Strategy Support Program II, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Ørskov ER (1988). Consistency of differences in nutritive value of straw from different varieties in different season. PP. 163-176. Proceedings of a Workshop on Plant breeding and Nutritive Value of Crop Residues. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, ILCA.


Perkin E (1982). Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Perkin Elmer Corporation, Norwalk, Connecticut, USA.


Preston TR, Leng RA (1984). Supplementation of diets based on fibrous residues and by-products. pp. 373-413. Straw and other by-products of feed. ELSEVIER Science publisher Co., Inc.


Randolph TF, Schelling E, Grace D, Nicholson CF, Leroy J L, Cole D C, Demment MW, Omore A, Zinsstag J, Ruel M (2007). Invited Review: Role of livestock in human nutrition and health for poverty reduction in developing countries. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2788-2800.


Reed JD, Abate T, Jutzi S (1986). Large differences in digestibility of crop residues from sorghum varieties, ILCA. Newsletter 1(1):5-6.


Risse LM, Cabrera ML, Franzluebbers AJ, Gaskin JW, Gilley JE, Killorn R, Radcliffe DE, Tollner WT, Zhang H (2006). Land application of manure for beneficial reuse. In: Animal agriculture and the environment national center for manure and animal waste management. pp. 283-316.


Selamawit D, Yeshambel M., Bimrew A (2017). Assessment of livestock production system and feed balance in watersheds of North Achefer District, Ethiopia. J. Agric. Environ. Int. Dev. 111(1):159-174.


Seyoum B, Fekede F (2008). The status of animal feeds and nutrition in the West Shewa Zone of Oromiya, Ethiopia. PP. 27-49. In: Proceedings of the Workshop 'Indigenous Tree and Shrub Species for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Productivity, Holetta Agricultural Research Centre (HARC), Ethiopia. Series on Conference and Workshop Proceedings of KEF (Commission for Development Studies at the Austrian Academy of Sciences): 2008/1.


Singh GP, Oosting SJ (1992). A Model for Describing the Energy Value of Straws. Ind. Dairyman XLIV:322-327.


Sisay A (2006). Livestock Production Systems and Available Feed Resources in Different Agro-ecologies of North Gonder Zone, Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis, Alemaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 95 p.


Solomon B (2004). Assessment of Livestock Production Systems Feed Resource base in Sinana Dinsho district of bale highlands, Southeast Oromiya. MSc. Thesis, Alemaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.


Solomon B, Solomon M, Alemu Y (2008). Potential Use of Crop Residues as Livestock Feed Resources under Smallholder Farmers Conditions in Bale Highlands of Ethiopia. J. Trop. Subtrop. Agro-ecosyst. 8(2008):107-114.


Thrustfield M (2013). Veterinary epidemiology (2nd edition). University of Edenburgh Blackwell Sciences. pp 1-6.


Tilahun H, Schmidt E (2012). Spatial Analysis of Livestock Production Patterns in Ethiopia. ESSP II Working Paper 44. International Food Policy Research Institute/Ethiopia Strategy Support Program II, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Tolera A (2009). Livestock feed supply situation in Ethiopia. Commercialization of Livestock Agriculture in Ethiopia: Proceedings of the 16th annual conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, October 8 -10, 2008. Part I: Plenary Session. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Tolera A, Yami A, Alemu D (2012). Livestock feed resources in Ethiopia: Challenges, Opportunities and the need for transformation. Ethiopia Animal Feed Industry Association, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Van Soest PJ (1982). Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminants: Ruminant metabolism, Nutritional strategies, the cellulolytic Fermentation and the Chemistry of Forages and Plant Fibers. Ithaca, New York. 373p.


Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB (1985). Analysis of Forages and Fibrous Foods. A Laboratory Manual for Animal Science 613.Cornel University, Ithaca. New York, USA, 202p.


Yeshitila A (2008). Efficiency of livestock feed resources utilization and forage development in Alaba Woreda, Southern Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis. Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 128 p.


Yitaye A (1999). Livestock production systems, Feed Resources and Feed Allocation Practices in three Peasant Associations of the Awassa Woreda. MSc. Thesis. Alemaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.


Yitaye A, Maria W, Azage T, Wemer Z (2007). Urban and peri- urban farming systems and utilization of the natural resources in the North Ethiopian Highlands. PP.5. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, University of Kassel Witzenhausen and University of Göttingen, Germany.


Zewdie W (2010). Livestock production system in relation to feed availability in the highlands and central rift valley of Ethiopia. MSc. Thesis. Haramaya University. Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.


Zinash S, Seyoum B, Lulseged G, Tadesse T (1995). Effect of harvesting stage on yield and quality of natural pasture in the central highlands of Ethiopia. In: proceedings of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP); Third National Conference 27-29 April 1995. IAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 316-322