International Journal of
Nutrition and Metabolism

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Nutr. Metab.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2332
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJNAM
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 123

Short Communication

Malnutrition in Albania, related problems and flour fortification as a solution

Pellumb Pipero*
  • Pellumb Pipero*
  • Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Center ?M. Theresa?, Tirana, Albania.
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Gazmend Bejtja
  • Gazmend Bejtja
  • Ministry of Health of Albania, Albania.
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Klodian Rjepaj
  • Klodian Rjepaj
  • UNICEF, Country Office, Tirana, Albania.
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Ehadu Mersini
  • Ehadu Mersini
  • Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, Hungary.
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Mario Pipero
  • Mario Pipero
  • Institute of Public Health, Tirana, Albania
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Alban Ylli
  • Alban Ylli
  • Institute of Public Health, Tirana, Albania
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  •  Received: 29 August 2014
  •  Accepted: 09 January 2015
  •  Published: 28 February 2015


Micronutrient deficiencies are caused mainly by an inadequate intake of vitamins and minerals, as a consequence of an unbalanced diet composed mostly of carbohydrates in the conditions of poverty, the inability to take a variety of nutrients, the lack of knowledge on the most appropriate feeding practices and the relatively high incidence of infectious diseases. From a public health perspective, the importance of these deficiencies depends on the magnitude of their impact on health, especially among pregnant women, infants and children, given the consequences in the development of the fetus, in the growth of the child, the resistance to infections and the work performance later during the adult life. According the Albanian Demographic Health Survey (ADHS) 2008 to 2009, conducted jointly by the Albanian Institute of Public Health (IPH) and the National Institute of Statistics (INSTAT), the nutrition status of the Albanian population indicates amongst many other characteristic, that anemia prevalence is highest among children living in mountainous areas, coastal areas and rural areas, respectively. In addition, 19% of women have anemia with the highest prevalence in breastfeeding women and those living in rural areas. Therefore this study aims at evaluating the cost-effective analysis of interventions targeting malnutrition in Albania and how to improve them especially through flour fortification.


Key words: Malnutrition, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals, deficiency, fortification, Albania.