International Journal of
Psychology and Counselling

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Psychol. Couns.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2499
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 222

Full Length Research Paper

Do the HoNOS and the HiTOP converge? Factor structure and normative data in a diverse Norwegian patient sample

Cato Grønnerød
  • Cato Grønnerød
  • Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 09 May 2023
  •  Accepted: 21 July 2023
  •  Published: 31 July 2023


A large factor analysis of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) indicates similarities between HoNOS factors and Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) spectra. A diverse sample of 866 Norwegian patients gathered in several studies was factor analyzed to try to replicate Speak et al.’s four factors and to do a conceptual analysis to connect the factors to HiTOP spectra. A primary severity factor emerged, mostly reflecting cognitive decline, thereby linking it to the Thought Disorder spectrum. Two other factors reflected the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. Detachment and Antagonism were not represented, whereas one or two factors related to purely functional aspects emerged. The data provides grounds for discussion of both the structure of the HoNOS, and possibly the coverage of the HiTOP spectra. The sample also provides a useful normative sample for HoNOS use among hospital mental health care in Norway.


Key words: HoNOS, HiTOP, psychopathology, mental disorders, function, functional level, assessment, symptoms.