The qualitative phytochemical analysis of oil, juice and dry forms of garlic and three species of onions (red, brown and white onions) was investigated. Samples of fresh and dried garlic, red, brown and white onions were prepared and analyzed. All the samples were analyzed for the presence of phytochemicals which include saponins, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids and alkaloids. Results of the juice samples showed that garlic has the lowest phytochemical content while red and brown onions recorded the highest and similar phytochemical contents. All the samples gave positive results for saponins and cardiac glycosides. For the dry samples, garlic had the lowest phytochemicals while the red and brown onions had the highest. The oil extracts of garlic and white onions had lower phyto-nutrients while red and brown species still possessed higher phyto-nutrients with steroids and saponins present in all samples. This study concludes that brown onions has the highest phytonutrients in all forms and are recommended as the most preferred option in health and disease.
Key words: Flavonoid, tannins, saponin,phytochemical, onions, garlic, Makurdi
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