This research investigates relationships between resistances with heat and work. It is completely proven that the ratio of work to temperature for the realistic process is no less than that for the reversible process. The equalities and inequalities on the heat, work and ratio of work to temperature could be applied to the gravitational field and chemical reactions. The relationships between path functions and state functions are studied in the chemical reactions. Some criteria for spontaneous directions have been suggested such as the equalities and inequalities on the heat, work, and ratio of work to temperature, except the Clausius inequality and must be ordinarily obeyed in the spontaneous process.
Key words: First law of thermodynamics, Clausius inequality, thermodynamic functions, chemical reactions, gravitational field, resistances, ratio of work to temperature.
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