International Journal of
Physical Sciences

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Phys. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-1950
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPS
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2550

Full Length Research Paper

Combined application of vertical electrical sounding and 2D electrical resistivity tomography for groundwater exploration in parts of Enugu metropolis, Southeastern Nigeria

Chukwudi C. EZEH
  • Chukwudi C. EZEH
  • Department of Geology and Mining, Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu, Nigeria.
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Chibuzo P. AGU
  • Chibuzo P. AGU
  • Department of Geology and Mining, Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu, Nigeria.
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Austin C. OKONKWO
  • Austin C. OKONKWO
  • Department of Geology and Mining, Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 16 August 2022
  •  Accepted: 19 October 2022
  •  Published: 31 October 2022

Abstract

Vertical electrical sounding (VES) and 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) employing the Schlumberger and Wenner configurations respectively were combined for groundwater exploration in parts of Enugu metropolis. The area is underlain by Enugu Shale and Mamu Formation. A total of twenty (20) VES and four (4) 2D ERT traverses were acquired in the study area. VES and 2D ERT data were processed and interpreted using INTERPEX 1X1D and RES2DINV respectively. Sounding curves shows dominant decrease in resistivity with depth while 2D ERT inverse model shows lateral variation in resistivity of the rock layers with lower resistivity at increasing depth. VES geoelectric layer sections show top sideritic clay - clay/shale sequence. Resistivity curve analysis also shows predominance of Q and K curve types. 2D map of aquifer layer resistivity, thickness and depth were constructed. Aquifer layer resistivity range from 2.00 to 190 ?m, while the thickness range from 10 to 75 m and a depth range of 23 to 150 m. The 2D ERT shows layer resistivity range of 0.1 to 250 ?m. Based on the combination of the two techniques for groundwater exploration in the study area, a water table depth of 18 m with a maximum drill depth of about 100 m was determined. However, it is recommended that the selection of point of drill should be on the low saturated regolith as observed on the 2D ERT sections.  

Key words: Aquifer, groundwater, VES, 2D ERT, resistivity.