International Journal of
Sociology and Anthropology

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Sociol. Anthropol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-988X
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJSA
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 334


The heart of transformative operations: How to sustain institutional change

Allan D. M. Bukusi
  • Allan D. M. Bukusi
  • Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ashesi University, Berekuso, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 17 May 2024
  •  Accepted: 06 June 2024
  •  Published: 30 June 2024


This paper distills the heart of transformative operations into four core values, essential for sustaining institutional change over the long term. With reference to institutions in Africa, an overview of the transformation achieved since the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 was provided. The researcher then observes that while transformational leadership facilitated the establishment of modern nations in the relatively stable 20th century, transformative leaders are at the forefront of the change agenda in the relentless, complex, and unstable global conditions of the 21st century. Nonetheless, there is an urgent need for institutions to establish transforming cultures to intrinsically drive sustainable change. Selected historical literature, academic journals, and empirical studies underpinning emergent transformative leadership theory were used to explore the heart of operations that support institutional survival, business sustainability, and long-term success. It is recommended that institutions should deploy transformative leaders at every level, employ transformative operations to harness latent human resource reserves, and embed the core values of a transforming culture to sustain institutional change initiatives. The paper invites a debate among scholars and practitioners in organization and business development, political science, human resource management, and sociology to review the foundations, framework, and focus of long-term sustainable institutional development on the continent.


Key words: Transformative operations, institutional change, transforming culture, sustainability, human resources management, organization, apex leaders, political transition.