The lifestyles of Chinese peasants have changed remarkably since the foundation of the PRC. More than six decades addressed in this paper: from 1949 to today. The lifestyle of Chinese peasants has undergone revolution, politicization, collectivization, and urbanization with resulting synchronicity, imbalance, and disharmony. The first 30 years after the founding of the PRC, the material subsistence of Chinese peasants was severely deficient, but their spiritual life was rich. In the following 30 years, the reverse has been true: material living standards have significantly improved, but the spiritual life has markedly declined. In recent years, backward agricultural productive forces, small-scale land operation, a surplus of laborers, limited investment, weak infrastructure, and lack of agricultural modernization has resulted in three rural issues that is, agriculture, rural, and farmers issues. Resolving these issues is the utmost priority in the Party's work along with balancing urban and rural development, boosting rural development, working to narrow the gap between urban and rural areas and integrating urban and rural development provides the fundamental solution to these issues. With fewer restrictions over their economic activities and government support, the lifestyle of Chinese peasants is experiencing unprecedented and unforeseen vicissitudes.
Keywords: lifestyle; material lifestyle; spiritual lifestyle; new countryside development.