Population census is a total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specified time, to all persons in a country or in a well defined part of a country drawing valid conclusions in situations of uncertainty and variability. Usually in the context of prevailing gender discrimination like issues, the figures revealed by means of census have also divulged gender bias. Taking notice of this, efforts were made to make Census of India 2011 gender sensitive in order to reveal a gender sensitive and objective picture of Indian population. The present paper aims to understand and evaluate the whole activity of Census of India 2011 as a tool ensuring gender mainstreaming.
Key words: Census, gender, fertility, migration, India, household, enumeration.