International Journal of
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Water Res. Environ. Eng.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6613
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 328

Full Length Research Paper

A study of physico-chemical characteristics of three fresh water springs of Kashmir Himalaya, India

Manzoor Ahmad Sheikh
  • Manzoor Ahmad Sheikh
  • Institute of Environment and Development Studies, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi – 284 128 (U.P), India
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Idrees Yousuf Dar
  • Idrees Yousuf Dar
  • Department of Environmental Science, University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006 (J&K), India
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Sayar Yaseen
  • Sayar Yaseen
  • Institute of Environment and Development Studies, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi – 284 128 (U.P), India
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Manzoor Ahmad Sheikh
  • Manzoor Ahmad Sheikh
  • Institute of Environment and Development Studies, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi – 284 128 (U.P), India
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Amit Pal
  • Amit Pal
  • Institute of Environment and Development Studies, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi – 284 128 (U.P), India
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Ashok K. Pandit
  • Ashok K. Pandit
  • Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar-190006 (J&K), India
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  •  Accepted: 16 April 2013
  •  Published: 30 June 2013

Abstract

 

The present study was carried out on the physico-chemical analysis of three fresh water springs in district Pulwama of Kashmir Valley viz: Sandyasar naag (Ladhu), Batenaag (Khrew) and Sonaraaz naag (Shar).The samples were collected on monthly basis from January to June 2011. The various parameters were analyzed after APHA (1992) and Gupta (2004). The determined values of the three springs depicted slight variations for depth, pH, temperature, alkalinity, ammonical Nitrogen, Calcium hardness, chlorides, DO, free COand nitrite Nitrogen. However marked differences were observed for conductivity, orthophosphorous and magnesium hardness. Moreover the variations for total hardness and TDS depicted ascending and descending trend.

 

Key words: Springs, physico-chemical analysis, Ladhu, Khrew, Shar, Kashmir.