International Journal of
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Water Res. Environ. Eng.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6613
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE
  • Start Year: 2009

IJWREE Articles in press

Evaluation of physico chemical and microbial properties of underground water in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

Article in Press

Water is a precious natural resource used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. Boreholes or wells are dug in homes and industries in order to have access to potable water in developing nations. Microorganisms and physico-chemical compounds contribute to pollution of water causing diseases and generating toxic metabolites. Human population is at risk of pathogenic organisms found in drinking water supplies...


Water Supply Interruptions in Umzinto Water System: Ugu District, South Africa.

Article in Press

The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa states that all citizens have a right to access adequate food and water. However, water services provision has remained one of the biggest challenges faced by most municipalities. The Umzinto water supply system under the auspices of the Ugu District Municipality (Ugu DM) was selected as the study area to evaluate the water supply interruption frequency. Data range for the...


Identification and Mapping groundwater potential areas using GIS and Remote Sensing in Wolaita zone, Southern Region, Ethiopia

Article in Press

Recently water is becoming a vital natural resource which can be used for many things in human life i.e. hydropower generation, sanitation, drinking, irrigation and transportation. But surface water is not enough to satisfy this all demands of humans. So beside surface water, ground water resource is by far huge in amount and not much exploited yet. Now a day exploitation of ground water through hydrogeological surveying,...



Article in Press

Water is one of the vital necessity or the need for human being and for all living things. This study was conducted to assess the existing and to forecast the future water supply and demand status of the Areka town, southern Ethiopia. A total of 150 households (HHs) were randomly selected and interviewed by using a questionnaire. To collect the required data, interview and observation were used and written documents were...



Article in Press

Rainfall intensity for a particular frequency and duration is one of the most important parameter for the hydrologic design of dam, reservoirs, storm sewers, culverts and many other hydraulic structures. This can be obtained from Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) relationship, which is determined by frequency analysis of rainfall data. The goal of this research is to develop rainfall intensity-duration frequency...


The effect of acidic rainfalls on soil erosion in Gypsum Formations

Article in Press

One of the most important effects of acidic rainfall is on the soil. It can affect other environments such as surface water and groundwater, plants and animals. In this study, to investigate the sensitivity of the runoff and sediment production of Gachsaran Gypsum Formation to acidic rainfalls and its density change, parts of Gypsum Mountain watershed the area in Izeh Township in Khuzestan province was selected with the...


Study on irrigation water quality in the Rift Valley areas of Awash River Basin, Ethiopia

Article in Press

Awash River water has impaired by various types of pollution owing to waste released from different socioeconomic activities in its basin. This study aimed to evaluate irrigation water quality of Awash River and its tributaries in the basin used for irrigation purposes. Sampling sites were identified based on the pollution sources, accessibility, and land use coverage. A total of 17 sampling sites were chosen along the...


Effect of Deficit Irrigation Levels at Different Growth Stages on Yield and Water Productivity of Onion under Furrow Irrigation System

Article in Press

Water scarcity is the most severe constraint for agricultural growth in arid and semi-arid areas. To overcome this, there is a need to use the available water efficiently and economically which is an important strategy to address present and future water need. This study was conducted for two years in Misrak Azernet berbere Woreda starting 2017/18 to investigate the effect of defict irrigation levels on yield and water...

Author(s):Tagesse Bekele, Shemelis Assefa, Sirak Tekleab

Multiscalar analysis of drought events in Upper Omo-Gibe River Basin, Ethiopia

Article in Press

Drought is a complex natural phenomenon that affects life and natural resources. It is needed to understand the drought events to take adaptation and mitigation measures. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of multiscalar drought events at 20 stations in the Upper Omo-Gibe River Basin (UOGRB) for the period of 1981 to 2016. Mann-Kendall, Sen’s slope estimator, Pettit test,...

Author(s):Fikru Abiko and Kassahun Ture

Weathering Processes acting on Chalky Limestone composing Geo-heritage at The White Desert, Farafra Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

Article in Press

Egypt is one of the most rich countries world–wide in its archaeological remains as well as the geological heritage that almost has not been discovered till now requiring much investigations through major projects under the umbrella of international institutes. Farafra Oasis and its surroundings in the heart of the western desert of Egypt, has some high geomorphic landforms of chalky limestone constitute an attractive...


At site flood frequency analysis for Gumara and Megech Rivers, Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

Article in Press

Extreme environmental events, such as flood, have severe environmental and socio-economic effects. Reliable estimates of peak flow and flood forecasting are of great concerns in water resources management and development. Flooding is a common problem in Ethiopia. Frequency and magnitude have increased rapidly in the last few decades. The increase in flooding is a result of climate change as well as land-use change...

Author(s):Walelign Kassie


Article in Press

This study is aim at investigating the causes of failures and hence the unsustainability of boreholes in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Data was collected through field survey, structured interview and the use of Global Positioning System (GPS). The result of the study was analysed using descriptive statistics and GIS buffer analysis techniques. The study revealed that there are 79% functional boreholes, and...


Correlation and Regression Analysis techniques applied to study Water Quality Assessment of Krokodilrivier Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

Article in Press

The water quality data was collected from the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS), and for this paper, the 2008 to 2018 data for the Krokodilrivier was used. There are 17 water quality variables, which were analysed, and are grouped into physical and chemical parameters. The data was compared with some of the international drinking water quality standards, such as the one issued by the World Health Organisation (WHO),...

Author(s):Fulufhelo Mavhungu

Application of Remote Sensing minoring for Land Surface temperature Changes, Using Thermal bands of Landsat sensors, Case study: Kabul Province

Article in Press

The fast changes in the land use and land cover of an urban area have become a major environmental concern recently in Kabul City. Land Surface Temperature, monitoring major elements of climate changes in a region studies. This paper aimed to explain the technique for land surface temperature differences analysis with the data from Landsat_7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) and Landsat_8 OLI/TIR thermal infrared sensor...

Author(s):Asadullah Rahmatzai

The effect of geological structures on groundwater in sedimentary formation of Abuja. Nigeria

Article in Press

Abuja sedimentary formation is located within the southern part of the federal capital territory which house Abaji and Kwali area councils. This area was investigated for ground water potential using the effect of the rock structures to determine the hydrology components of the studied area. Geophysical method and geological method of exploration involving the vertical electrical sounding was employed to prospect for...



Article in Press

Land use and land cover changes in Kulfo River watershed experience enormously of human instabilities due to agricultural development, and growing urban demand for charcoal, cutting wood for energy; resulting in forest and land degradation. This consecutively transformed the hydrologic responses of the watershed. The purpose of this study was assessing the hydrological impact of land use change on Kulfo River watershed....

Author(s):Wanjala Wankie Tilahun

Analysis and Characterization of Rainfall trend using Statistical Approach: a case study

Article in Press

In a city like Bangalore, where the population is high, settlements are congested and thus every nook and cranny of the city is occupied by residences, businesses etc. During rainfall, the low-lying areas become flooded. This poses a risk towards life and property of the people living in such areas. During rainy season this catastrophe can be manages as the authorities would be well prepared and take necessary action. But,...

Author(s): Surendra H J


Article in Press

Now a day, Lake Hawassa is seriously impinged by the various human activities in its watershed. This could create favorable conditions for the invasive Macrophytes like water hyacinth attacking Lake Tana and Koka. Hence, identification of the impacts of pollution on the Macrophytes species diversity, distribution and coverage is very important. In doing so, rapid bioassessment method in five pollution entry points, where...

Author(s):Lalisa Gemechu Bona


Article in Press

From the times of the industrial revolution, there has been an enormous change in social and economic growth leading to various compromise in other areas such as environmental degradation at the expense of development and modernization, most settings tend to focus more on social and economic stands and other important strands of the environment without appreciating the status and changes in the environment. The rationale...

Author(s):Brian Chanda Chiluba

Analysis of Rainfall Trend in the eastern parts of Ethiopia, West Harargae

Article in Press

Analysis of rainfall trend is an important tool for decision making in water resources management. The objective of this study was to investigate the time series trend of rainfall data for three sites in the eastern parts of Ethiopia, west Harargae. The double mass curve techniques was used to assess the homogeneity of the rainfall data and the Man-Kendall test was employed to detect the changes. Accordingly, the analysis...

Author(s):Fitsum Yimenu

Performance of sentinel 2 image for Land use and land cover classification (LULC) in Awramba watershed, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

Article in Press

Remote sensing is a means for LULC classification. This study was carried out in upper Blue Nile in small catchment called Awramba watershed having an area of 700 ha. To evaluate and tested the accuracy of sentinel 2A level 1 image in land use land cover classification .Thirty –Four training simple ground truth points were collected from the field using GPS. Sentinel 2A level 1C Top of Atmosphere (TOA) captured...

Author(s):Berhanu G. Sinshaw

Spatial temporal mapping of urban water demand and groundwater development in Nairobi County in Kenya

Article in Press

Water scarcity in African cities often linked to deficiencies in service delivery than limitations in available water resources. These limitations have created a situation where multiple service providers enter the urban space to meet the gap in providing access to water. In this context, water resources managers emerge as the only entity with a common picture of how water resources are managed. They require more...

Author(s):Nathan B. Wangusi

Evaluation of groundwater quality in relation to solid waste dumpsites using water quality index in Maiduguri, Nigeria

Article in Press

This study evaluates the quality of groundwater in relation to dumpsites in Maiduguri, a total of 4 water samples were analysed in dry and wet for physico-chemical characteristics. Temperature, Turbidity, pH, TDS, and EC were measured using standard laboratory instruments. The BOD, DO, COD and NO3 were determined using standard laboratory methods. The heavy metals were analysed using the multi-wave plasma atomic emission...


Evaluating the water use efficiency under full and deficit irrigation; the case of sesame crop (Sesumum I.) in Woreda Kafta-Humera, Tigrai-Ethiopia.

Article in Press

Sesame (Sesumum I.) crop is one of the cash crops exported from Ethiopia to Europe and Asia that contributed to the country GDP. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the water use efficiency (WUE) under full and deficit irrigated sesame crop in wereda Kafta-Humera, Tigrai-Ethiopia. Sesame crop production was particularly related to the summer (Kiremt rainfall). But due to a variation in rainfall distribution in...

Author(s):Ataklti Gezae

Evaluating the Economic Water Productivity under full and deficit irrigation; the case of sesame crop (Sesumum indicum L.) in woreda Kafta-Humera, Tigrai-Ethiopia

Article in Press

Sesame crop (Sesumum indicum L.) is one of the cash crops exported from Ethiopia that contributed to the country GDP (gross domestic product). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the economic water productivity (EWP) under full and deficit irrigated sesame crop in wereda Kafta-Humera, Tigrai-Ethiopia. Sesame crop production was particularly related to the summer (Kiremt rainfall). But due to a variation in...


Hydraulic Performance Assessment of Mychew Small Scale Irrigation Scheme, North Ethiopia

Article in Press

Assessment of irrigation performances is very essential in taking different water management strategies. However, the performance of Mychew irrigation scheme was not assessed yet and hence, this research was undertaken to assess the hydraulic performance of Mychew small scale irrigation scheme. Moreover, identification of the cause and effect for mal-functionality of irrigation structures was also another objective of this...

Author(s):Efriem Tariku Kassa

ANNs, SVM and empirical methods for modelling reference evapotranspiration with limited climatic data in the city of Xai-Xai, Mozambique

Article in Press

Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is useful for water management, calculating crop water requirements and irrigation scheduling. ETo was estimated from 5 empirical methods based on temperature, 5 based on solar radiation and on Machine Learning Technique (MLT). The MLT model consisted of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), with 6 architectures each one. The MLT and empirical methods were...

Author(s):Bartolomeu Félix Tangune Catine António Chimene, Inácio Cipriano and Titki Djoal Tarassoum

Evaluating Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Surface Water Availability of Upper Awash Sub-Basin, Ethiopia

Article in Press

Climate change alters regional hydrologic conditions and results in a variety of impacts on water resource systems. Such hydrologic changes will affect almost every aspect of human well-being. The economy of Ethiopia mainly depends on agriculture; and this in turn largely depends on available water resources. The aim of this study is to assess the impacts of climate change on surface water availability of Upper Awash River...

Author(s):Mekonnen H. Daba, Kassa Tadele, Andualem Shimelis, Assefa M. Melesse

Determination of crop evapotranspiration, single and dual crop coefficients for Calendula officinalis L. in an arid climate

Article in Press

Crop coefficients for Calendula officinalis L. have not been determined yet, although crop coefficients of many plants have been provided by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). C. officinalis L. is a medicinal plant used for manufacturing skin and beauty medication products. This study aimed to determine crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and single and dual crop coefficients (Kc) for C. officinalis L., in the...

Author(s):Farideh S. Hasheminasab-khabisi, Mohammad Mousavi-Baygi and Bahram Bakhtiari

Surface water distribution among the provinces of Pakistan

Article in Press

The water resources sector is both the lifeline and the gear of development in Pakistan. The main source of water in Pakistan is the ‘Indus River System’. Under the ‘1960 Indus Basin Treaty’ with India, Pakistan was entitled to the flow of three western rivers (Indus, Jhelum and Chenab), with occasional spills from the eastern Rivers Sutlej and Ravi diverted upstream by India. The average annual inflows of the...

Author(s):Shaukat Ali Khan, Qazi Tallat M. Siddiqui and Abdul Hannan

Rural water supply sources, systems and systems performance in Nigeria

Article in Press

Access to potable water in rural communities in Nigeria is failing rather than rising. In this context, this paper investigates the landscape of rural water supply in Nigeria using reliable data collected across the six geo-political zones in the country. The data used were obtained through questionnaire surveys, field observations and from records in the national and states agencies responsible for public water supplies....

Author(s):Obeta Michael Chukwuma

Ground water potential mapping for Suryanagara Watershed, Bangalore District, Karnataka State, India

Article in Press

The present work is an attempt to geographic information system (GIS)-based analysis in ground water potential zone identification in hard rock terrains. It is necessary to understand different types of landforms and their characteristics, igneous rock types, geological structures and how they evolved with respect to each other .hydrological characteristics and slope in order to demonstrate the integrated remote sensing...

Author(s):Nanjundi P., Chalapathi K. and Inayathulla M.

Mapping conductive zones using very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) method around Capitol Landfill Dumpsite in Benin City, Nigeria

Article in Press

In this paper the main results from the implementation and interpretation of the geophysical survey using very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) method carried out in Capitol solid waste disposal site (Southern Nigeria) are presented. The objective of the study was to monitor the effect of suspected leachate contamination in Capitol solid waste disposal site. The survey comprised ten VLF-EM traverses in North-South...

Author(s):I. Ikhifa, M. N. Umego and G. N. Egwuonwu

Surface water quality assessment of Guangua Badiya and Chelenka Rivers for irrigation purposes in Abaya district, Borena zone, Ethiopia

Article in Press

Water in agricultural activities is important for satisfying increasing food demands of the ever-increasing population through irrigation practices which was considered as the main alternative for a sustainable agricultural production. A good quality of surface water has a positive effect on soil and agriculture. However, before using surface water for agricultural purpose, its quality should be tested and analyzed to...

Author(s):Temesgen Kebede and Yonas Ademe

Kullu hydro clustor development in Himachal Pradesh: A vibrant development platform

Article in Press

Small hydro project development activity started in the hilly state in 1900's during the British Raj, while the Ruler Kings were responsible for wellbeing of their small kingdom. The young king of Chamba (HH Bhuri Singh) while returning from overseas study in UK returned with a hydro turbine of 630 KW for the hydroelectric power station. The transport facility and other disadvantages could not stop his entrepreneurial zeal...

Author(s):H. S. Rauth, S. Mukhopadhyaya and M. Gupta

The removal of benzene toluene, ethyl benzene and p-xylene (BTEX) from aqueous solution by granular activated carbon

Article in Press

The removal of benzene toluene, ethyl benzene and p-Xylene (BTEX) from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated in the study. To determine the efficiency of GAC, the removal of BTEX by GAC was carried out in relation to contact time, adsorption dosage and pH. Comparative studies of batch and column setup and adsorption/desorption were done to determine its efficiency in respect to its...

Author(s):Juliet, O. Ikem

Quantification of water balance using a lysimeter in Mexico

Article in Press

Under conditions of high pressure on water resources, it is essential to quantify the water balance. There are tools to perform the water balance, but unfortunately, they are expensive and hardly accessible in developing countries. The objective of this study was to quantify the water balance using a low-cost lysimeter (LCL). Rainfall was measured using rain gauge. Soil water content (SWC) and infiltration were measured...

Author(s):Hipólito Muñoz-Nava, José Adrián René Grada-Yautentzi, Jorge Batlle-Sales, Elizabeth García-Gallegos and Rafael Valencia-Quintana

Water supply and demand analysis for Chuko Town, Sidama Zone, Southern Nations Nationalities People Regional State (SNNPR), Ethiopia

Article in Press

The provision of adequate and good water quality in developing country is a major concern due to urbanization and rapid population growth. The study town Chuko is facing the problem of inadequate water supply and poor quality. The study was conducted with the objective to assess the information gap on the water supply and demand. To see the gap between supply and demand, basically population growth estimation and water...

Author(s):Abiy Getachew

Mathematical expression for the parameters affecting electromagnetic removal of suspended solids from wastewater

Article in Press

In this research the effect of the electromagnetic field on the efficiency of the removal of the suspended solids from wastewater resulting from the biological treatment in Al-Rustamia treatment plant (Baghdad/ Iraq) was studied. Different parameters (flow rate, contact time, exposure distance, pH, temperature and electromagnetic field) were investigated that have an impact on the removal efficiency of the suspended solids...

Author(s):Hayder Mohamed Abdul-Hameed and Safa Hameed Fadhil

Spatially distributed mapping of rainfall and evapotranspiration across Southeastern Nigeria

Article in Press

Spatial trends of rainfall and reference evapotranspiration (ETo) are crucial for crop water management and sustainable water resources management. Twenty-one years of climatic data were used to estimate ETo using FAO Penman Monteith method in Southeast Nigeria. Two spatial interpolation techniques, inverse distance weighting (IDW) and Kriging (K) in ArcGis were employed to distribute spatial monthly annual and seasonal...

Author(s):Michael Emeka Okechukwu and Constantine Crowner Mbajiorgu

Floodplain delineation in Dongola City-Northern Sudan using digital elevation model

Article in Press

Better understanding of the flood hazard phenomenon and its potential consequences in our society is crucial for the development of flood control polices, risk reduction projects, and other types of flood management strategies. This study focuses on how two different ArcHydro models used to predict the floodplain extent and assess the vulnerability of Dongola city that may affect the estimation of potential flood damage....

Author(s):S. M. Elnour, M. Y. Mohamed and T. S. Ganawa

Hydrological model performance across altitudes, climates and catchment scales

Article in Press

Water resources management decisions are made based on information from predictive models that are capable of simulating the behaviour of hydrological systems. More of these models are in use today and it is becoming increasingly difficult to choose which model to use for particular space and time scales as well as climate. In addition, as a result of climate change there is an increase in the degree of randomness in...

Author(s):Hesbon Otieno

Suitability of silica sand from Bukkuyum (Zamfara State) of Nigeria for waste water treatment

Article in Press

Industrial sand is used in filtration of drinking water, processing of wastewater and production of water from wells. Uniform grain shapes and grain size distributions produce efficient filtration bed operation to remove contaminants in both potable water and wastewater. This paper is aimed at finding out the suitability of silica sand from Bukkuyum Local Government Area of Zamfara State of Nigeria, as filtration sand for...

Author(s):A. G. Salisu, J. Saudatu and M. S. Rukaiyat

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