International Journal of
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Water Res. Environ. Eng.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6613
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 332

Full Length Research Paper

Quality assessment of traditional water resources in Khamis Mushait City, Abha Metropolitan, Assir Province, Saudi Arabia

Eed Lafi Shaher Al-Otaibi
  • Eed Lafi Shaher Al-Otaibi
  • Geography Department, School of Human Sciences, King Khalid University, P. O. Box: 25160, 61466 Abha, Assir, Saudi Arabia.
  • Google Scholar
Mahmoud S. Ahmed Zaki
  • Mahmoud S. Ahmed Zaki
  • Department of Applied Medical Sciences, Khamis Mushait Community College, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 17 March 2012
  •  Accepted: 07 April 2012
  •  Published: 31 July 2012


The physical and chemical quality within traditional water resources of Khamis Mushait City, Saudi Arabia, that are being used for various urban purposes were assessed to explore consistency. The network sampling and cross-sectional techniques were implemented. Google earth digital satellite map of the study area was used as a master map for sampling. A total of 66 water samples were collected randomly from surface and well water located at and around the city. All samples were subjected to standard analysis. The results have revealed the overall means of turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, chlorides, hardness as CaCO3, sulphate, ammonia, nitrate, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in water samples taken from deep wells, shallow wells and surface water. These results showed that shallow wells had the highest values for conductivity, total dissolved solids, chloride, hardness, sulphate, nitrate, copper, manganese, and zinc. However, surface water had the highest levels for turbidity, pH, and ammonia. Iron contents of deep wells and surface water samples were nearly the same. Thus, samples taken from deep wells were superior to those from shallow wells and surface water sources. There were significant correlations with each other between physicochemical parameters except for manganese, which showed no significant correlation with any parameter. Iron showed only a significant correlation with zinc. Recommended hygienic measures are also discussed.


Keywords: Physicochemical, traditional water resources quality, hygienic measures, Khamis Mushait, satellite map, Saudi Arabia.