International Journal of
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Water Res. Environ. Eng.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6613
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 347

Full Length Research Paper

Analysis of community led total sanitation and its impacts on groundwater and health hygiene

Ihsan Ullah Khan
  • Ihsan Ullah Khan
  • Department of WASH and Humanitarian Assistance, Norwegian Church Aid (NCA), Islamabad, Pakistan.
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Shams Ali Baig
  • Shams Ali Baig
  • Department of Environmental Sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200, Pakistan.
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Bahadar Nawab
  • Bahadar Nawab
  • Department of Development Studies, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan.
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Tahir Mahmood
  • Tahir Mahmood
  • Department of Development Studies, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan.
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Ingrid Nyborg
  • Ingrid Nyborg
  • Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norwegainn University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway.
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  •  Received: 02 June 2016
  •  Accepted: 27 October 2016
  •  Published: 30 November 2016


This study was carried out to determine the magnitude to which Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach leads to improved sanitation and its potential threats to groundwater quality and health of people. A comparative study was carried out between eight CLTS and non CLTS villages to measure the outcomes of CLTS approach. Water samples were collected to assess the level of contamination in groundwater sources near pits in villages where CLTS approach was adopted. Semi structured interviews, focused group discussions (FGDs) and transit walks were used for data collection. Results revealed the tendency of high level of groundwater contamination in CLTS as compared to non CLTS villages which might be because of pit latrines in the area. Water for hand washing is available, but the use of soap depends upon the economic status of the households. However, 5% increase in the hand washing practices was noticed during the field data collected in CLTS implemented village as compared to non CLTS villages. In addition, water borne disease prevalence was also noticed in CLTS villages, but some improvements were observed in terms of hygiene among the people in CLTS implemented villages. The findings showed that the drinking water quality is deteriorated in the study areas which could be linked to promotion of sanitation systems that do not break the pathogen cycle.


Key words: Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) villages, groundwater contamination, Environmental sanitation, health, hygiene.