Journal of
Agricultural Extension and Rural Development

  • Abbreviation: J. Agric. Ext. Rural Dev
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2170
  • DOI: 10.5897/JAERD
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 484

Table of Content: 14 May 2012; 4(9)

May 2012

Frequency of virus in some Diplodia pinea and Gremmeniella abietina isolates originated from Turkey

Diplodia pinea and Gremmeniella abietina are common pathogens causing shoot blight and dieback of pine all over the world. D. pinea is one of the main causal agents of shoot blight of Calabrian pines in the Mediterranean countries including Turkey. G. abietina has been recently observed on saplings and seedlings of Pinus nigra, which remain under snow cover during winter...

Author(s): Aday A. G., Lehtijarvi A. and DoÄŸmuÅŸ- Lehtijarvi H.T.

May 2012

Ash dieback caused by Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus in a seed plantation of Fraxinus excelsior in Austria

Ash dieback, an emerging fungal disease incited by Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorphChalara fraxinea), causes immense damage to Fraxinus excelsior in many parts of Europe. There is hope that some individuals of this tree species display high levels of resistance to the disease. In 2009 and 2010, the intensity of ash dieback was investigated in an ash seed plantation in Upper Austria,...

Author(s): Thomas Kirisits and Christian Freinschlag

May 2012

Reestablishing the health of secondary forests “Satoyama” endangered by Japanese oak wilt: A preliminary report

Japanese oak wilt caused by the fungus Raffaelea quercivora is increasing in secondary forests known as "Satoyama" that are surrounding rural communities. Oak wilt is occurring in stands that are 40 to 70 years old that have been used for fuel wood and charcoal production and then left unmanaged because those wood fuels were replaced with gas and kerosene since 1950s. An ambrosia...

Author(s): Kuroda K., Osumi K. and Oku H.

May 2012

Pathogenicity of some fungi isolated from cankers on Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis in Turkey

Natural stands of Cupressus sempervirens in Turkey are among the largest forests of this species in the world and are regarded as relicts of the centre of origin of var. horizontalis. In this study, we tested the pathogenicity of some of the most common fungal isolates originating from cankers on C. sempervirens by inoculating the isolates into the inner bark...

Author(s): Lehtijärvi A., Oskay F., DoÄŸmuÅŸ-Lehtijärvi H. T. and Aday A. G.

May 2012

Nursery and field experiments to test conifers susceptibility to Pitch Canker disease

Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of the Pitch Canker disease, which was first detected in Spain in 2004. Not only Pinus species seedlings in nurseries were affected but also Pinus radiata plantations in the forest. Thus, the pathogen has spread out over several pine forests of northern Spain producing substantial economical losses. Consequently, a resistant and viable pine...

Author(s): P. Martínez-Álvarez, J. Blanco, M. de Vallejo, F. M. Alves-Santos and J. J. Diez

May 2012

Soil temperatures during prescribed burning and the occurrence of Rhizina undulata Fr.

Rhizina undulata is a postfire fungus. The ascospores germinate after heating over 35°C. The prescribed burning of one forest compartment was done in the purpose to investigate the effects of forest fire to atmosphere at Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station in Southern Finland. The soil temperature measurements were one part of that research. One year after burning, the ascocarps of R....

Author(s): Antti Uotila and Janne Levula

May 2012

Presence of Viral dsRNA molecules in the Spanish population of Gremmeniella abietina

Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina has commonly been pointed out as a species complex, which includes different races and biotypes. Among them, the Spanish population seems to be a unique population derived from type A. Furthermore, G. abietina is known to harbour infections and co-infections of putative mycoviruses belonging to different families. In particular, G. abietinatype A harbours...

Author(s): Leticia BOTELLA, Tero T. TUOMIVIRTA, Jarkko HANTULA and Julio J. DIEZ

May 2012

Using genomics to gain insights into the evolution and biology of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on European horse chestnut

Sarah Green1*, Bridget E. Laue1, Heather Steele1 and Paul M. Sharp2

Author(s): Sarah Green, Bridget E. Laue, Heather Steele and Paul M. Sharp

May 2012

Himalayan dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium minutissimum) and the leafy mistletoe Taxillus kaempferi on blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) in Bhutan

Blue pine, Pinus wallichiana, is an important tree species in temperate conifer forests in Bhutan. Disease surveys have shown that Himalayan dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium minutissimum, and the leafy mistletoe, Taxillus kaempferi, are important damaging factors on P. wallichiana in this Himalayan country. The knowledge on these two parasitic flowering plants in Bhutan is reviewed. A dwarf...

Author(s): Sangay Dorji, Edwin Donaubauer, Michael J. Wingfield, Dal Bahadur Chhetri and Thomas Kirisits

May 2012

Quantification of Dothistroma septosporum spores by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Many fungal plant pathogens can be spread over long distances by airborne or rain splash spore dispersal. These spores can infect susceptible hosts causing disease and in some cases mortality and for this reason spore monitoring followed by control is needed. Air sampling can be combined with modern sensitive molecular methods such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), real-time PCR (West et al., 2008,...

Author(s): Josef Janoušek, , Rebecca McDougal, Martin Mullett, Libor Jankovský, Anna Brownand Rosie E. Bradshaw

May 2012

Dieback of ash (Fraxinus excelsior and Fraxinus angustifolia) in Eastern Austria: Disease development on monitoring plots from 2007 to 2010

Dieback of Fraxinus excelsior and Fraxinus angustifolia, caused by Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea), is presently the most important damaging factor of hardwood trees in Austria. Results from permanent monitoring plots in Lower Austria show that disease development on mature ash trees was slow from 2008 to 2010. In 2008, mean dieback intensity ranged from 1 to 34% on...

Author(s): Marion Keßler, Thomas L. Cech, Martin Brandstetter and Thomas Kirisits

May 2012

Alien pathogens of forest trees in Austria

Based on information in the literature and unpublished records a brief synthesis on alien pathogens of forest trees in Austria is presented. A total of 29 pathogens were recorded, consisting of one bacterium, nine Phytophthora species, 14 ascomycetes, three anamorphic fungi and two basidiomycetes. The majority of alien pathogens (23 out of 29) occur on hardwood species. Six pathogens have had a high impact on...

Author(s): Thomas Kirisits and Thomas L. Cech

May 2012

Ash dieback associated with Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus in forest nurseries in Austria

Dieback of Fraxinus excelsior, Fraxinus angustifolia and other Fraxinus species is an emerging infectious disease caused by the ascomycete fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus(anamorph Chalara fraxinea). Investigations in five forest nurseries in Austria from 2008 to 2011 showed that ash dieback is a common and important disease of nursery seedlings. H. pseudoalbidus was...

Author(s): Thomas Kirisits, Peter Kritsch, Katharina Kräutler, Michaela Matlakova and Erhard Halmschlager

May 2012

Chalara fraxinea incidence in Hungarian ash (Fraxinus excelsior) forests

Chalara fraxinea was identified for the first time in Hungary in the first half of 2008, in western Hungary near Kapuvár and Sárvár, in 4 to 6 years old mixed (seed and coppice shoot) origin European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) stands (Szabó, 2008). In the same time in Budapest, under an older Turkey Oak – Sessile Oak – European ash stand we also detected the symptoms and the...

Author(s): A. Koltay, I. Szabó and G. Janik

May 2012

Antagonistic effect and reduction of Ulmus minor symptoms to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi by elm endophytes

The interactions between 31 elm endophytic fungi and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi were in vitrotested, and 18 endophytes inhibited the pathogen growth. Four selected endophytes were also in vivo tested against O. novo-ulmi, and three of them significantly reduced the tree wilting symptoms caused by the pathogen.   Key words: Dutch elm disease, endophytes,...

Author(s): Juan Antonio Martín, Johanna Witzell, J., Kathrin Blumenstein and Luis Gil

May 2012

REsource INFrastructure for monitoring and adapting European Atlantic FORests under Changing climatE (REINFFORCE): Establishing a network of arboretums and demonstration sites to assess damages caused by biotic and abiotic factors

The reality of global warming is recognized worldwide, and most of the climatic models in the optimistic scenarios of IPCC forecast a 4°C temperature rise over the next 50 years. Nevertheless, the regional consequences are still fuzzy, especially in the case of ocean areas because there are many unknown factors like the climatic, economic and environmental conditions at regional level. However, some specific...

Author(s): Cristina Prieto-Recio, Felipe Bravo and Julio J. Diez

May 2012

Foliage diseases on true fir (Abies spp.) in Norway

Fir plantations in Norway are mainly for Christmas trees, a production situated to a large extent in western Norway, where the mild, humid climate is also ideal for fungal diseases. Thus, a number of airborne fungi causing foliage diseases on true fir (Abies spp.) have been found in nursery, Christmas tree, bough, and/or landscape plantings in Norway, with the most serious ones being Botryotinia...

Author(s): Venche Talgø and Arne Stensvand

November 2011

Neonectria-canker on trees in Norway

Neonectria spp. have been found on a number of tree species in Norway. Neonectria ditissimais commonly detected from diseased trees in apple orchards and a N. ditissima–like species has caused an epidemic on white fir (Abies concolor). In Norway, Neonectria spp. attack numerous plant species including true fir (Abies spp.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), alder (Alnus...

Author(s): Venche Talgø, May Bente Brurberg and Arne Stensvand

November 2011

Fungal and bacterial diseases on horse chestnut in Norway

Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is mainly grown in gardens, public parks and alleys in Norway. It has been known as a tree with no disease problems, but since 2006, a number of new diseases have been detected (leaf blotch, powdery mildew, anthracnose, and bleeding canker). These new diseases have most likely entered the country by imported horse chestnut transplants. The diseases mentioned here may...

Author(s): Venche Talgø, Juliana Irina Spies Perminow, Arild Sletten, May Bente Brurberg, Maria Luz Herrero, Gunn Mari Strømeng and Arne Stensvand

May 2012

Evaluating methyl jasmonate for induction of resistance against Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium circinatum and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

Worldwide, damping off is probably the most severe disease affecting seedlings in forests nurseries. In south-western Europe, the pitch canker and the Dutch elm disease cause relevant economic looses in forests, mostly in adult trees. Plants protect themselves against a diversity of attackers through constitutive and inducible defense strategies. Exogenous applications of Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) have been successfully...

Author(s): María Vivas, Juan Antonio Martín and Alejandro Solla

May 2012

The ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus is associated with leaf symptoms on ash species (Fraxinus spp.)

Ash dieback caused by the ascomycete fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (anamorphChalara fraxinea) is characterized by a wide range of symptoms. Leaf symptoms have previously been related to this emerging infectious disease. In fungal isolations from necrotic lesions on leaf petioles and rachises as well as leaflet veins of Fraxinus excelsior, H. pseudoalbidus was consistently obtained at high...

Author(s): Katharina Kräutler and Thomas Kirisits

May 2012

Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the Eastern Himalayan spruce bark beetle (Ips schmutzenhoferi) in Bhutan: Species assemblage and phytopathogenicity

A brief synthesis of recent studies on the ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the Eastern Himalayan spruce bark beetle, Ips schmutzenhoferi and on the pathogenicity of selected fungal associates of this insect to Picea spinulosa and Pinus wallichiana is presented.I. schmutzenhoferi is intimately asso-ciated with ophistomatoid fungi and eleven fungal associates belonging to the...

Author(s): Thomas Kirisits, Heino Konrad, Michael J. Wingfield and Dal Bahadur Chhetri

May 2012

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