The pattern of ocular manifestation of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection in Bayelsa state, Nigeria is presently unknown. In order to effectively control HIV/AIDS infection in the state, it is important to know the ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS infection in this locality. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the eye manifestation of HIV infection in patients receiving highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART). A descriptive study was carried out on all consecutive HIV infected patients including those with the advanced stage of the disease. They were all receiving highly active anti retroviral therapy at the “Heart to Heart” clinic of the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH). The study took place over a period of 16 months. A detailed medical history followed by a comprehensive ocular examination was carried out on each patient, and the findings were recorded. A total of 150 HIV positive patients were examined during the period of this study. They were 57 males and 93 females, with a male to female ratio of 1:1.6. Twenty one patients with ages ranging from 8 to 66 years old presented with ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS infection. They had a mean age of 41.48 years old (standard deviation (SD) ± 13.98). The prevalence of ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS infection was found to be 14% (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.4 to 19.6). HIV related microvasculopathy and uveitis (each 24%) were the commonest ocular manifestation in this population followed by retrobulbar optic neuritis (19.2%) and Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (9.6%). HIV related microvasculopathy, uveitis and retrobulbar optic neuritis were responsible for over 2/3 of ocular manifestation. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, cytomegalovirus retinitis and conjunctiva microvasculopathy were rare findings.
Key words: human immune deficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), disease, ocular, highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART), tertiary, eye centre.
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