The widespread emergence of antibiotic resistance, particularly multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) among bacterial species has become one of the most serious challenges in environmental protection. Environmental bacteria are a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and a potential source of novel resistance genes in environmental organisms. In the current study, we investigated the high prevalence of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from wastewater and soil in Jos metropolis, Plateau State. A total of 150 wastewater and soil samples were obtained from six different locations within Jos metropolis. Serial dilution was carried out for each sample and inoculated using the spread plate method on Eosin Methylene Blue Agar and MacConkey agar respectively. Total viable count for the environmental isolates was carried out and the isolates were identified macroscopically, microscopically, and biochemically. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the individual isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and multiple antibiotics resistance index of the isolates determined. The phenotypic and biochemical identification showed that Escherichia coli has the highest number of occurrences (70%), seconded by Klebsiella spp (20%), and lastly Proteus spp. (10%). It was shown that all the isolates were resistant to Ceftazidime (100%), followed by Ampicillin and Augmentin having (95%) each with Cefuroxime (90%) while Gentamicin has the least resistance with (5%), followed by Ciprofloxacin (15%), Ofloxacin (20%) and Nitrofurantoin (25%). Calculations of MAR for individual bacterial species showed that Klebsiella spp has the highest MAR index of 0.63, followed by E. coli and Proteus spp having MAR index of 0.57, and 0.31 respectively. The study suggests proper management for wastes disposal, the prohibition of unregulated use of antibiotics, and regular monitoring for antibiotics resistance in native bacteria of the environment.
Key words: Antibiotics resistance, public health, MAR Index, environmental waste, enterobacteriaceae.
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