African Journal of
Bacteriology Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Bacteriol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9871
  • DOI: 10.5897/JBR
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 120

Full Length Research Paper

Bacterial contamination: A comparison between rural and urban areas of Panipat District in Haryana (India)

Tyagi Shruti1, Tyagi Pankaj K.1*, Panday Chandra Shekhar1 and Kumar Ruchica2
  1Department of Biotechnology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, Meerut UP, India. 2Department of Biotechnology, N. C. College of Engineering, Israna, Panipat Haryana, India
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 16 February 2011
  •  Published: 31 March 2011



A randomized sampling from open air of the kitchens in rural vs urban households to determine bacterial contamination of Haryana (India) were carried out by taking 80 samples between July to September 2009. 40 samples of each in rural and urban area were collected in culture plates. The inoculation procedures were varied from direct inoculation of the kitchen air into the nutrient agar medium. Identification by bacterial taxonomy key, different morphological and biochemical tests in rural households, numbers of bacteria revealed Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp.and Paenibacillus sppwith 9 different strains and in urban households, numbers of bacteria revealed Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Micrococcus spp., Paenibacillusspp. and Acinetobacter spp. with 27 strains. Among the isolates, Salmonella spp(80%) followed by Acinetobacter (63%), Pseudomonas putida (38%) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (30%) were observed in rural areas. In urban areas Bacillus spp(88%),Pseudomonas spp(75%), Micrococcus spp(70%), Paenibacillus spp(38%) andAcinetobacter spp(30%) were observed. The bacteriological quality of air of kitchens in rural households was found to be more pathogenic and virulent as compared to that of kitchen in urban households. These opportunistic pathogens may be harmful, especially in immunocompromised host. In this setting, there is a constant risk of contamination and transfer to willing host. Hence, better quality of air can be achieved by manipulating sanitation and hygiene within houses, kitchens and surrounding areas.


Key words: Air of kitchens, households, bacteriological quality, sanitation and hygiene.