The review aims to examine dairy cattle production system together with pastoral and agro- pastoral, small holder, peri urban and urban intensive dairy cattle production system, breeding practice including mating system (natural mating and Artificial Insemination), breeding objectives, reproductive and productive traits of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia most farmers use natural, unplanned and uncontrolled mating system by using breeding from communal grazing and a few farmer use AI for improvement of breed and production by upgrading the genetic makeup of indigenous breed of cattle. Hence in Ethiopia, using breeding objectives in line with the effective breeding policies for both natural service and AI for sustainable and effective animal breeding practice is needed. Stakeholders, animal breeders and policy designers are to pay attention in transforming the already existing traditional breeding practices that target the productivity of dairy cattle with cautious consideration of genetic conservation of local cattle breeds.
Key words: Breeding objective, breeding practice, dairy cattle, Ethiopia.
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