Journal of
Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

  • Abbreviation: J. Chem. Eng. Mater. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6605
  • DOI: 10.5897/JCEMS
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 96

Full Length Research Paper

Preparation of phosphoric acid activated carbons from Canarium Schweinfurthii Nutshell and its role in methylene blue adsorption

Adegboyega Surajudeen Olawale1, Olusegun Ayoola Ajayi2*, Michael Sunday Olakunle1, Mku Thaddeus Ityokumbul3 and Sam Sunday Adefila4
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 2Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. 3Department of Energy and Mineral Processing, Penn State University, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 4Engineering and Environmental Services Limited, Suite 5 ZM Plaza, Ahmadu Bello Way, Garki 11, Abuja, Nigeria.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Received: 30 April 2015
  •  Accepted: 08 July 2015
  •  Published: 22 July 2015


Activated carbons were prepared by phosphoric acid activation of Canarium Schweinfurthii spent nutshell. The activation conditions for particles with average diameter of 2.36 mm, conducted in nitrogen chamber, were evaluated at 40 and 60% acid concentration, substrate/activating agent  (impregnation) ratio of 1:1 to 1:4, activation time of 20 to 60 min and temperatures of 200 and 400°C. The results showed that the yield, BET surface area and adsorption capacities of activated carbon produced increased with impregnation ratio, activation time and temperatures. The activated carbon obtained using 1:4 impregnation ratios at 60 min with 40 wt% acid solution have BET surface area and adsorption capacity of 741 m2/g and 8.5 gMB/g Carbon while those for 60wt% acid solution were determined as 779 m2/g and 9.2 gMB/g Carbon, respectively.


Key words: Canarium schweinfurthii, activated carbon, phosphoric acid, methylene blue, impregnation ratio, dyes.