Efforts towards soil and water conservation (SWC) goal were started since the mid-1970s and 80s to alleviate both the problems of erosion and low crop yield of Ethiopia. The data were collected through structured questionnaire via face to face interview with 120 sampled household (HH) from Karasodity and Deko villages of Wenago district. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Heckman two-step econometric estimation procedure. Family size, frequency of extension services, training, and types of SWC practices showed significance and positive relationship with environmental effectiveness (EP) of SWC practices. Access of input, age of the household head, livestock holding and land size were positively related with, and frequency of extension services, access of credit and total land to labor ratio were negatively related with effectiveness of SWC practices on economic level of household (ELHH). Total benefit of SWC practices showed negative relationship with ELHH and statistically significant at p<0.01. It indicated the fact that the benefits from investing in SWC practices accrue over time. There should be work to demonstrate the profitability through providing technical support, access to credit, and provision of efficiently working tools needed for the construction and maintenance of SWC practices.
Key words: Soil and water conservation (SWC), environmental, economic, effectiveness, Heckman
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