The impact and usefulness of specialization and diversification strategies of agricultural research in developing countries is reviewed. The specialization strategy is based on principles of optimization on resources allocation in the spatial context, and it typically prevails over diversification strategy that considers inter-temporal resources allocation. However, diversification strategies offer biodiversity, self-sufficiency, technical competency and risk neutralization. The benefits of the diversification strategy support farmers' independence and production increase, as well as long run conservation of biological resources. Research and development of new technologies for diversification can play an important role in the agricultural development of fragile developing nations.
Key words: Specialization, diversification, biodiversity, risk-taking.
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