Journal of
Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology

  • Abbreviation: J. Environ. Chem. Ecotoxicol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-226X
  • DOI: 10.5897/JECE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 189

Full Length Research Paper

Surface water contamination in Halsi Nala; an assessment and spatial distribution survey using geographical information systems (GIS) approach

Iqra Azam
  • Iqra Azam
  • Department of Zoology, Institute of Life Sciences, University of Gujrat, Punjab, PO 50700, Pakistan
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Sumera Afsheen
  • Sumera Afsheen
  • Department of Zoology, Institute of Life Sciences, University of Gujrat, Punjab, PO 50700, Pakistan
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Ahmad Zia
  • Ahmad Zia
  • Department of Zoology, Institute of Life Sciences, University of Gujrat, Punjab, PO 50700, Pakistan
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Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar
  • Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar
  • Department of Zoology, Institute of Life Sciences, University of Gujrat, Punjab, PO 50700, Pakistan
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Tahir Iqbal
  • Tahir Iqbal
  • Department of Zoology, Institute of Life Sciences, University of Gujrat, Punjab, PO 50700, Pakistan
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  •  Received: 20 June 2015
  •  Accepted: 19 August 2015
  •  Published: 30 September 2015

Abstract

Present study was designed to assess the fate, occurrence, spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic contaminants in water of Halsi Nala, a major tributary to River Chenab, subjected to different pressures (industrial, agricultural, domestic waste water discharges). As the studied water basin runs through several residential, agricultural and industrial areas, so its water quality affected along its course. Samples were taken from twenty sites during February 2013 to March 2014 and data obtained was analyzed through statistical techniques of multivariate analysis such as Cluster Analysis (CA), Discriminant Factor Analysis (DFA) and Spatial distribution analysis using GIS. Being a sink for domestic and industrial waste, surface water was  analyzed for pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Alkalinity, Turbidity, Temperature (°C), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Chlorine (Cl), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and for Zinc (Zn). Grouping of sites was done into four zones on the basis of spatial variation in water quality using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HACA). Most of the parameters were found above permissible limits to WHO (World Health Organization) standards. Variations in water quality were result of anthropogenic activities in catchment of Halsi Nala such as untreated industrial wastes, sewage waste, animal dung and agricultural runoff. Knowing importance of Halsi Nala, being a major tributary to River Chenab, present study thrusts for implementation of proper health measures and making environmental legislation to control degradation of water quality by implanting proper water treatment plants in District Gujrat, an important  industrial zone of Punjab Province of Pakistan.
 
Key words: Heavy metals, spatial map, Halsi Nala, River Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan.