The current daily crude oil production in Nigeria stands at about 2.0 million barrels per day thus placing Nigeria as the 6th largest oil producing country in the world. Volumes of petroleum and its production wastes streams find their way into the inland waters and oceans. Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans including edible sea seaweeds and microalgae widely eaten as seafood, especially in Asia. "Seafood" is extended to fresh water organisms eaten by humans. Effects of petroleum exploration and production (E and P) activities on seafood are enormous and range from poor seafood health to extinction due to non-spawning and death as a result of pollution. Petroleum E and P activities and their influences on production and management of seafood in Nigeria is herein reviewed showing some field observations and research findings justifying the influences. The impacts of petroleum E and P activities on the production and management of seafood in Nigeria is partly due to non-integration of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES) into petroleum E and P operations and partly due to non-enforcement of existing legal framework as a result of duplicity and overlap of functions of regulatory agencies and lack of political will power.
Key words: Petroleum activities, seafood, environmental pollution, oil spills, regulatory framework.
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