Journal of
Microbiology and Antimicrobials

  • Abbreviation: J. Microbiol. Antimicrob.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2308
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMA
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 166


Universal stress protein (usp) gene role: A conceptual hotspot for general resistance and microbial survival

Onyia C. E.
  • Onyia C. E.
  • 1Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. 2South-East Zonal Biotechnology Centre, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Ezeonu I. M.
  • Ezeonu I. M.
  • 1Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Eze E. A.
  • Eze E. A.
  • 1Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 25 July 2023
  •  Accepted: 20 September 2023
  •  Published: 31 October 2023


The increasing trend of antimicrobial resistance is quite alarming and requires urgent response to circumvent the menace. Microorganisms are known to be resistant to adverse reactions using different survival strategies. Indiscriminate usage of antibiotics has driven the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance within pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. The majority of microbes have established defence mechanisms against antibiotics, including the efflux of antibiotics from cells via efflux pumps, enzymatic destruction of the antibiotic molecules, and chemical changes that protect the cellular targets of antibiotics. But in the course of this review highlight, we found microbial-resistance approach to antibiotics by stress-mediated process. The concepts of resilience and resistance are complementary and both represent different aspects of the stability of ecosystems. Recently, most stress conditions have been advocated to be molecular-switches to usp gene expression, which support microbial survival. It has been established that microorganisms resist macrophage-phagocytosis and such resistance was attributed to usp gene expression. This showed that usp acts as an essential linkage to resistance of various antimicrobial agent. The ubiquitous nature of usp in various organisms was found to help organisms survive under stress conditions. Furthermore, this review will help explore the extent to which usp gene expression provides resilience and resistance to microorganisms.


Key words: Universal stress protein, resilience, antimicrobial resistance.