Journal of
Music and Dance

  • Abbreviation: J. Music Dance
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2360-8579
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMD
  • Start Year: 2011
  • Published Articles: 18

Full Length Research Paper

Efforts to improve music education in Turkey

Mustafa Kabatas
  • Mustafa Kabatas
  • Kastamonu Üniversitesi, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 22 February 2017
  •  Accepted: 18 April 2017
  •  Published: 30 June 2017

 ABSTRACT

It is seen how state policies are effective in education when it is thought that education is organized according to the principle of making the individual useful for the community. Given that education policies should be effective in all areas of education, music education is expected to be present in a common political attitude in the fields of general, ethical and professional music education (Küçükahmet, 2000) . It can be said that the most obvious change in the music education policies came with the Republican era in Turkey. These innovations was not enough only in state administration and social life. Atatürk, also wanted to reach a level of contemporary civilization in cultural matters. Taking Turkish music to the international level by taking advantage of the music, knowledge and techniques of the West constitutes the aim of Ataturk's work on music. National fine sentiments, high sayings about thought, gathering of sayings; We need to handle them the day before according to the final musical bases. In this way, Turkish national music can rise, it can take place in international music” he said. And development politics have been prepared in the field of music as well. Accordingly, there is a need for a music education development policy with continuity and sustainability in the context of today's music education. In this direction; Evaluating the reflections of educational development policies in the Republican period on music education and developing suggestions constitute the main problem of this research. This research: consideration of the developmental policies of music education applied in the Republican period with an inductionist approach is important from the point of view of the general view of music education policies of the Republican period, and as a source for researchers and field experts. In this research, it tried to describe the situation regarding the music education policies of the Republican period. Research is a descriptive screening model suitable for qualitative research approach.

Key words: Education, music, music education, culture, music culture.


 INTRODUCTION

Education is a process in which a person performs himself as a cultural entity. Individual's level of development; The structure of the society in which it lives is measured by its production and education. Attitudes and behaviors that are valuable at the social level also reveal the aims of education. The process in which these behavior patterns develop is called the training process (Adorno, 2003a, 76-83). Uçan (1997) explains the educational process in the following way:
(1) "As an individual, every human being is born in an environment composed of natural, social and cultural elements as a hostile organism or entity, with some "biopestic". The individual lives side-by-side and intertwined with the natural, social, and cultural elements of the surrounding environment.
(2) “The individual has more or less but constant interaction with things around him. Within this process of interaction, the individual becomes aware of his/he rown life activity together with the environment and formed by socialization and cultivation, changes and evolves".
 
Music education can not be considered independent of the aformentioned variables as part of the general education process. The general understanding of state policies is reflected in education policies in general, and in music education in particular.
 
According to Uçan (1997), music education is gathered in three areas: general (formal), amateur (common) and professional music education. General (formal) music education is aimed at everyone at all levels and stages, regardless of job, profession, school and program, aims to develop music culture for the healthy and balanced life of the individual. This kind of music education is generally aimed to gain students in kindergarten, primary school, junior high school and high school education (Katoğlu, 2014).
 
Amateur (common) music education, aims to develop the musical behaviors necessary to increase the enjoyment and satisfaction levels of individuals who are amateurish, interested, willing and inclined to any branch of music or music. In amateur music education, the individual develops in the direction of his own ability, desire and endeavor to reach fulfillment (Bayramlı, 1976).
 
Professional music education is an educational field for individuals who have a certain level of talent in music, who choose the whole of music field or a branch as a profession. The basis of professional music education is not the individual's satisfaction from his work in the direction of his wishes and interests but his specialization in the way that his profession requires. To summarize, music education can be defined as the process by which the individual acquires specific musical habits for his or her own life and creates certain changes in the behavior of the individual through his own experience (Uçan, 1997).
 
Politics is the path a political party follows in government (Yıldız et al., 2003). According to Aristotle, politics are all activities the community has done for the public. In the history of Turkey with the rescript of Gülhane, one of the first areas where the change in state policies in the Ottoman Empire affected was education. Educational policies, one of which is politically relevant, can play a role in reducing income disparity in society. In this context, the state can reduce the inequalities in opportunities by preventing education from becoming a single hand in certain hands, providing equality for all, improving the possibilities for educational tools and equipment, and undertaking increased training expenditures (Adorno, 2003b, 320-324).
 
It is seen how state policies are effective in education when it is thought that education is organized according to the principle of making the individual useful for the community.  Given that education policies should be effective in all areas of education, music education is expected to be present in a common political attitude in the   fields  of   general,   ethical  and  professional  music education (Küçükahmet, 2000).
 
It can be said that the most obvious change in the music education policies came with the Republican era in Turkey. With the proclamation of the republic, social and cultural structure of the society has gone through the arrangements that are in line with the level of contemporary civilization, and this has accompanied some new approaches in educational policies. The most decisive factor in the educational policies of the Republican era is the opinions of Atatürk and his friends (Ayas, 2003).
 
In general education, specifically determines the quality of the music education of the contemporary civilization was seen as required by this policy and the formation of desired behaviors in individuals according to the values of the Republic. As mentioned in the “Milli Eğitim Temel Kanunu”, music education is expected to be addressed in the way stipulated by Atatürk. For this reason Atatürk's views on contemporary Turkish music and music education play a decisive role in music education. Atatürk has made many innovations in political, social and cultural life to bring the Turkish nation above the level of contemporary civilization. These innovations was not enough only in state administration and social life. Atatürk, also wanted to reach a level of contemporary civilization in cultural matters. Taking Turkish music to the international level by taking advantage of the music, knowledge and techniques of the West constitutes the aim of Ataturk's work on music.
 
On November 1, 1934, Atatürk, in the opening speech of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, he explained the studies related to bringing Turkish music to the level of modern civilization as follows:
 
“In all of the fine arts, I know what kind of advances the youth of the nation want you to improve. This is done. However, it is the Turkish music that is required to be brought to the fastest and to the front in the fine arts. The measure of a new change of a nation is that it can receive and understand change in music. The music that is played today is far from being proud. We should know that clearly. National fine sentiments, high sayings about thought, gathering of sayings; We need to handle them the day before according to the final musical bases. In this way, Turkish national music can rise, it can take place in international music” he said. The continuity of education programs and policies is expected expected (Aydoğan, 2014). The fact that every government changes its education programs in line with its own ideas and interests, negatively affects education. The continuity and non-sustainability of educational policies and the development of the society and the cultural reflection of these policies can not be expected”.

 


 METHODOLOGY

Purpose of the research
 
The purpose of  this research  is  to  evaluate  the  music  education policies observed in development plans in Republican period. With the republic, the general policy of the country was determined to surpass the level of contemporary civilization. Within this policy framework, there have been fundamental changes in education, and a new structure was introduced in education. This process which started with the Republican period still continues today. The Republican period, which determines the basic characteristics of educational policies, is important in terms of determining the policies of music education in this research.
 
In this research, the situation regarding the music education policies of the Republican period was tried to be described. This research is in a descriptive screening model suitable for the qualitative research approach. Document analysis includes analysis of written materials that contain information about facts and phenomena targeted for investigation (Yıldırım ve Şimşek, 2006). The screening model is an approach aimed at describing in the past or as if it were an existing situation (Karasar, 2006).
 
Problem of research
 
Accordingly, there is a need for a music education development policy that is sustainable and sustainable in the context of today's music education. In this direction; evaluating the reflections of educational development policies in the Republican period on music education and developing suggestions constitute the main problem of this research.
 
Importance
 
This research is important in terms of studying the policies of music education development in the Republican period with an inductionist approach, examining the policies of music education in the Republican period with a general perspective, and providing a source for researchers and field experts.

 


 FINDINGS

Development plans are an important resource in determining the music education policies of the Republic of Turkey. In this direction, the Development Plans were given priority in the study. A development plan can be defined as a set of plans and programs for the developmental change of an country. Below, the five-year development plans prepared by the State Planning Organization are discussed in terms of music education.
 
The first five-year development plan (1963 to 1967) (State, Planning Organization, 1963)
 
In the First Five-Year Plan of the State Planning Organization (DTP), the importance of ensuring that radion, education and national integrity are ensured, and that the establishment of radio stations is meeting a social need is addressed. It has been mentioned that the training is based on a long-term program and is not planned. It is also stated that there are imbalances in education.
 
In short, neither art education nor music education  was specifically included in the state development plan (DPT, 1963). Educational investments are historically tabled, but music education financing is not specifically included (DPT, 1963).
 
In education, under the heading "Books" of the "Present Situation" section; It is aimed to introduce Western art in the country, to introduce Turkish art in the world, and to educate artists in the field of plastic and phonetic arts. It has been decided to attach importance to fine arts for the fulfillment of the mentioned purposes, and to place state art gifts in every part of fine arts. However, no explanation has been given about how to do this (DPT, 1963).
 
It is envisaged that better utilization of the radios, which is an effective means of ensuring education and national integrity, and the establishment of at least one radio station on every corner of the country. During the First Plan period, the radio network, which is weak and inadequate in transmission capacity, has been renovated by establishing strong new dispensers in various regions and provided a good service to the listeners in and out of the country (DPT, 1968: 599).
 
In the First Development Plan, music education was not specifically included. However, decisions regarding the fine arts were taken. When it is thought that music education is also in the fine arts, it is understood that “artistic gifts” also include musical artists (Kaplan, 2005).
 
The second five-year development plan (1968 to 1972) (DPT, 1968)
 
In order to ensure the general and special benefits expected from the training, it is stated that the education programs at all levels of education will be organized in a way that will realize the educational principles in education, and supported by an adequate body and art education program (DPT, 1968).
 
In the Performing Arts and Music section; there is a positive development in the public and private sector theater works, the number of concert listeners is increasing but the activities of State Opera and Ballet are limited (DPT, 1968). It is stated that the possibilities of performing arts education of theater, music, ballet, national dance ensembles are not distributed in a balanced way, and that there is a lack of grown artists in these arts branches (DPT, 1968).
 
It has been stated that Turkish art and science events should be promoted in foreign countries in order to take place of Turkish culture on the international scene, communication of foreign art scientists and their communities with relevant environment in Turkey, regulation of international cultural festivals and Turkish works must be translated into foreign languages, science and arts people should follow developments abroad and special programs should be prepared and supported to participate in international cultural festivals (DPT, 1968).
 
In the context of the  plan,  it  is  stated  that  folk  music sections will be established in the conservatories for the continuation, preservation and development of folk music, and that the work of the Turkish Folklore Institute and voluntary organizations in this area will be supported. It is stated that the regional orchestras will be established besides the theaters in the region to increase the regional contacts in order to enable the broad use of the state opera, ballet and orchestras. Parallel to these studies, public institutions and voluntary organizations have also been shown to support their Turkish and western musical studies (DPT, 1968).
 
It is stated that the necessary facilities for making all kinds of musical instruments in the country will be created (DPT, 1968). It is stated that, starting from primary education, the education programs of all education levels will continue to improve the research skills of the students, and to send the students abroad to make the changes that will teach the students the developments in the science field and to train researchers (DPT, 1968).
 
In the second plan, decisions were made about promoting art education in educational programs, arranging activities of State Opera and Ballet more frequently increasing the number of few artists, preparing programs to spread national culture, make studies for the protection and development of folk music works, for the production of all kinds of musical instruments in the country, ensure that talented students were sent abroad and educated and that the radio network, which was insufficient in the previous period, was made adequate. These decisions show that the state has a national culture, and that music education is important.
 
The third five-year development plan (1973 to 1977) (SPO, 1973)
 
In the section on educational problems, it is mentioned that besides the quantity problem, the education system and the education programs, the production activities and the labor market are not aligned. The fact that the cultivated individuals are not in line with the economic and social development requirements is also identified as an important problem (DPT, 1973).
 
It has been shown that the methods of education are not of the quality to gain students the ability of observation, research and abstraction. In addition, it has been pointed out that in all education levels, the training programs, lessons and equipment are insufficient to provide these skills (DPT, 1973).
 
In the expansion and improvement of educational opportunities, it is stated that the duration of basic education will be increased to eight. It is stated that the human power that can not be met with formal education will be met by general and especially vocational-technical non-formal education programs. As a non-formal means of education, practical health, practical agriculture and the development of practical arts schools are envisaged. The pre-work training centers and the  on-the-job  training system have been extended to expand education and training (DPT, 1973). The plan, did not present opinions on art and music in preschool education (DPT, 1973). It was mentioned that there is a conservatory in secondary education (DPT, 1973), but no opinion on higher education was found (DPT, 1973). General and formal education has been addressed but has not been specifically addressed in art or music education (DPT, 1973).
 
The level of education of the individuals to be trained by the new education system envisaged in Article 1483, and their distribution according to their branches is presented in the form of additional records. In the table of total expenditure on education, 870 million (at 1971 prices) expenditure items were allocated to culture, youth, sports and other educational investments. It has not been revealed that music education is included in this expenditure (DPT, 1973).
 
In the 1676th article of the Plan, it was stated that the sections of the conservatory of music, and the efforts of the research and compilation carried out by independent artists were limited and no measures could be taken to prevent the decline of Turkish Folk Music. In this area, it has been pointed out that there are not enough efforts in the field of researching, developing, collecting and creating, apart from some initiatives of TRT (DPT, 1973).
 
In Article 1682 of the Plan; to develop a system that encourages compilers, preservatives, futurists, creators, promoters and other constructive institutional and individual endeavors and activities in various branches of culture and arts. In addition, it is stated that Turkish art and literature should be encouraged in a way that it should contributes to the countries and contemporary civilization (DPT, 1973).
 
In the first part of Article 1683 of the "Principles and Measures" section, it was stated that the development of fine arts and the training of artists and creators for the creation of new and valuable works, and the development of educational tools will enable them to demonstrate their talents. It has been stated that artists and creators will be encouraged on a continuous basis, if necessary, in new ways, and that they will be given the place they are entitled to in society. It is also stated that an order will be developed in various branches of fine arts to provide research, compilation and teaching especially on traditional Turkish art. In the second part of the "Principles and Measures" section, 1683, it was stated that the use of leisure time, directing people to constructive and creative arts and cultural activities will be encouraged by special programs starting from school age (DPT, 1973).
 
There will be a public concert, theater, cinema, a public concert hall, a public education room and a public concert hall, where there will be an arrangement to make use of the leisure facilities of schools and sports facilities as well as public facilities, and other cultural displays will be organized. "Principles and Measures" section, in the fourteenth part of 1683, encouraged the  development  of cultural activities, and educational tools by various public and private institutions responsible for carrying out their work in the field of culture and arts. It is also stated that it is important to carry out the mentioned studies with a common principle (DPT, 1973).
 
It is stated in the Plan that a research project will be organized in order to protect and develop the real elements of Turkish Art and Folk Music, and that the mentioned research will include samples of the period (DPT, 1973). In the third plan period, it has been stated that music education is included only in the middle school period in the education system, the measures to protect, spread and develop the culture on the second plan are not taken and TRT does not encourage these studies sufficiently (Cengiz, 2011).
 
On the other hand, the development of fine arts and the creation of new works have focused on the possibilities of educational opportunities and tools for artists. It is stated that the artists will be encouraged in this direction to develop a new order for research and qualified teaching. It is also stated that cultural activities will be carried out in public education centers, public education rooms and community houses in order to constructively and creatively evaluate leisure time (Mustafa, 2009).
 
The fourth (1979 to 1983) five year development plan (SPO, 1979)
 
The development of the publication of books, newspapers and magazines in Turkey in the education, culture, youth and sports section of Chapter 1, Chapter 6 of the Plan has been given as a table. Here, a table showing the decreasing number of books about fine arts from 1973 to 1976 was presented (DPT, 1979).
 
It has been stated that a large proportion of foreign works were placed in Planda, the State Opera and Ball, that local works constituted only 8% of the works played for 5 years, and that an average of 301 audiences per representation decreased, a small number of seats were used. Between 1973 and 1977, the number of operas, operettas and ballets represented by the State Opera and Ballet Directorate decreased gradually from 1972 (DPT, 1979).
 
The state conservatories responsible for conducting education and research in the field of music were inadequate in terms of quantity and quality in meeting the needs of the country's artists and performers (DPT, 1979). Under the heading "culture" in the second part of Chapter 3 of the second part; Television, cinema and theater will be supported, it is seen that "the production of the instruments and equipment for the music will be provided in the country" regarding the music (DPT, 1979). It is stated that the existing academies in fourth plan will be developed from the aspects of creativity, and production and dissemination of contemporary art products (DPT, 1979).
 
In the fourth part of the second part, it is stated that the radio broadcasts are obtained and the broadcasting stations to be installed, and the television broadcasts can be reached from all over the country. In this period, 600 million turkish lira for radio and television services will be invested (DPT, 1979).
 
In the fourth plan, the State Opera and Balesin often exhibited foreign works and not enough local artifacts. The state conservatory has stated that the country is not competent enough to meet the artist's needs. In this plan, as in the second plan, the topic of the production of instruments and utensils for music is given again.
 
Fifth (1985 to 1989) five year development plan (SPO, 1985)
 
It is stated in the education section of the plan that the transfer of special education services to gifted and talented children at elementary and junior high school level (Article 544) will be linked to a program (DPT, 1985). The 583th article of the "National Culture" section of the plan focuses on the research, development and promotion of Turkish music, which has not been much appreciated.
 
During the 5th plan period, it was aimed to develop Turkish music as the main principle. In the article 584 of the "National Culture" section of the plan; It is stated that music education given at various levels of teaching will be reorganized with the aim of promoting and liking Turkish music to young people. It was emphasized that the aim of the dissemination of the organizations providing Turkish music education in the whole of the dormitory was aimed (Green,
 
In the 585th article of the "National Culture" section of the report, it is stated that the national culture should be emphasized to be investigated, developed and promoted both inside and outside the country. In the 586th article of the "National Culture" section of the Plan, it is mentioned that emphasis will be given to the development and dissemination of literature, painting, theater and cinema arts, which have an important place in cultural life. But the music was not included here. In the fifth plan, it is emphasized that the education of gifted and talented children will be connected to a special program. The aim of the previous plans is to research, develop and promote Turkish music. It is stated that institutions providing Turkish music education will be spread in the country.
 
The sixth (1990 to 1994) five year development plan (SPO, 1990)
 
In the 817th article of the plan, it is stated that the infrastructure necessary for the education of children with special skills, having a talent for learning, a problem with speaking, a problem with speech, disability, inconsistent or continuous disease are to be improved (DPT, 1990).
 
In Article 822 of the Plan; It is stated that the system of free boarding education and scholarship applied at various levels of education and training will be changed and directed primarily to students with gifted financial opportunities. In the article 827 of the section "Secondary Education and General Secondary Education" In 1099 of the "Culture" section, it is stated that national culture accumulation will be utilized in a contemporary approach to opera, ballet and orchestra studies. In section 1099 of the "Culture" section, it is stated that national culture accumulation will be utilized with a contemporary approach to opera, ballet and orchestra studies (DPT, 1990).
 
In section 1102 of the "Culture" section; researching, training, collecting and promoting national music will be supported. In section 1103 of the "Culture" section, it is mentioned that while traditional Turkish music is protected in its own forms, the production of qualified music with superior interpretation power in new forms will be supported. It is stated that activities such as physical education and music which affect human body and soul development will be expanded and opportunities will be created to encourage active participation of people of all ages. The issue of providing the infrastructure necessary for the training of gifted children, also mentioned in the fifth plan, has been repeated. It has been stated that scholarships will be given primarily to gifted students, while those in general high schools will be reorganized in accordance with the interests and abilities of the students (Günay, 2011).
 
In addition to this, it is mentioned in the report as it is in other reports that Turkish music should be developed. While it is suggested that operas, ballets and orchestras should benefit from Turkish cultural accumulation, it is mentioned that opportunities to participate in music events of every age are increased.
 
Seventh (1996 to 2000) five year development plan (DPT, 1996)
 
Under the seventh five-year development plan, nothing related to direct music education was encountered. However, according to the chart in the "Higher Education Human Power Supply Projection" section in the "Education Reform" section, In 1995, it was found that 14700 people in fine arts and 19500 in 2000 were needed (DPT, 1996).
 
The eighth (2001 to 2005) five year development plan (DPT, 2001)
 
According to the table in the projection of the high education human power supply project in the Education Reform section of the eighth development plan; In the field of fine arts; It is  seen  that  18800  persons  in  2000 and 24000 persons in 2005 are needed (DPT, 2001).
 
In Article 783 of the Plan, it is stated that local governments should prepare activities programs for young people, especially culture, arts and traditional sports, to contribute to the work of spreading youth centers throughout the country, to support the private sector to invest in these areas and to have expert personnel in these centers (DPT, 2001).
 
No specific music or music education was included in the "culture" section of the plan, but on the 82nd article a decision was made to "encourage the production of unique ideas and works in culture and arts, and those who contribute to cultural life and artists" (DPT, 2001).
 
According to the figures in Planda, the shortage of individuals working in the fine arts sector between 1995 and 2005 seems to have increased.
 
The ninth (2007 to 2013) five year development plan (SPO, 2007)
 
In terms of music and music education in the nine-term five-year development plans covering the period up to 2010:
 
(1) The importance of fine arts should be emphasized in education
(2) The support of the arts education program to make the education programs 'educational business principle'
(3) The fact that the activities of the State Opera and Ballet are limited, the artists who are educated in music are few
(4) The establishment of regional orchestras for the victims of large masses from the State Opera, Ballet and Orchestra. (5) The support for the possibilities for the construction of all kinds of musical instruments in the country to be supported by the state.
(6) The support of the public institutions for the development of Turkish Folk Music. All education levels from primary education will be improved in terms of their ability as researchers of the education programs of the education programs
(7) Public education rooms, and the use of sports facilities to organize free concerts and cultural shows
(8) TRT does not encourage the protection and dissemination of music cultures sufficiently, the Turkish Opera and Ballet Institution places a small number of Turkish works in it.
(9) A training program to be given to special talented and gifted children topics.


 DISCUSSION

There is a fascinating power of music in ensuring social unity and integrity, in unifying and directing the masses in a single spirit. These influences created by music  are  its general conclusions. It is indispensable to be able to benefit from this characteristic of music in the search for the individual's vital peace and beauty and to teach the value teaching at every stage of music education. A famous Hungarian music teacher, Kodaly, once said,
 
"I used to think that the child's music education had started nine months before the birth. I'm not in the same mind now. Children's music education began nine months before the birth of her mother"
 
She emphasized that everybody should go through music education in order to become a better and happier person. The musical environment in which humans live is constantly changing with people. The individual interacts with various musical genres in this environment where he is born and grew up. In keeping with the musical development of the quiche, one type of music is not enough and not right (no type of music alone is enough).
 
For this reason, with healthy individuals being educated, all the musical genres living in our country as a whole and the selection of good samples together (with evaluation), weight is in our own musicals, general music education can be made a healthy and balanced structure. This flexible structure brings with it musical tolerance and respect (Erol, 2002).
 
With our general music education, we must accelerate our steps towards becoming a developed society with this value combined with the rich expression power of music, the graft of our people, the glorification of humanity. A government's cultural policy; Is the socio-cultural and socio-economic life of that community. The cultural structure is an indication of the development of societies. Education, which has undertaken the cultural tradition, is the foundation of a society (Feridunoğlu, 2004).
 
For this reason, it is necessary to develop education programs systematically, in accordance with the conditions of the times and continuously. Due to the influence of music on the emotional and intellectual development of individuals, in education programs, music education should be seriously emphasized and music must be evaluated and programmed accordingly.
 
Careful attention must be paid to the fact that Confucius' program music and the quality of the music presented in the society are acted on the grounds that "if music is broken in a society, everything is distorted". In the century we live, we have a contemporary teacher in the dimension of teaching strategies, namely a teacher model of the 21st century, who can use the teaching methods and techniques well, develop his/her unique tactics, benefit from information and communication technology, solve every problem he/she has encountered scientifically. It may be possible to define itself as 'constantly updating its knowledge'. Our society always desires the growing human power in developed and developed countries. The society that thinks that development   and  development  can  only  be  achieved through education is in the expectation of educators who train teachers for the new generation.
 
In this context, it can be said that it is necessary to resolve some important and important problems for the formation of the above teacher model in the music teacher education in Turkey. The place and importance of music education in social life; It would be helpful to recall the view of the great thinker Aristotales: "The moral balance of music and its use as an educational tool has been accepted in every age. That is why it is not possible to deny the moral power of music.
 
And since this power is on it; It is necessary to use the music in the education of children. In a study in which the opinions of lecturers of various universities' music education departments about their current education system and quality were expressed, it was stated that the programs could not be developed sufficiently in terms of inadequacy and modernity criterion. Some of the inadequacies and imbalances of the programs. Dr. Ali Uçan is attracting attention in various publications.
 
At this point, it can be said that the problems related to the music education system of Turkey can not be considered separately from the general education problems, and that there is "politics that can not find identity" with the statement of he;  There is an effective cooperation and opportunity between all elements of education in our country, which are developed by cooperation between national culture, school, family and society, suitable for agriculture and culture, decentralized and democratic, educated local governments and participation in the private sector. An educational system that is open to scientific and scientific developments is not even a top job in the ranking of developed countries (Sun, 1989). 


 CONCLUSİON

When it is thought that education is organized according to the principle of making the individual useful for gathering, it is seen how the state development policies are effective in education. Given that education policies must be effective in all areas of education, it is expected that music education will have a common political attitude in the fields of general, ethical and professional music education. It can be said that the most obvious change in the music education development policies came with the Republican era in Turkey.
 
With the proclamation of the republic, social and cultural structure of the society has gone through the arrangements that are in line with the level of contemporary civilization, and this has accompanied some new approaches in educational policies. The most decisive factor in the education policies of the Republican era is the views of Atatürk and his friends. These policies, which determine the quality of education in general and music education in particular, have  been  regarded  as  a necessity of contemporary civilization and the behaviors that are desired to be formed in the individuals have been determined according to the values ​​of the Republic. As stated in the Basic Law of National Education, it is expected that music education will be handled in the way prescribed by Atatürk. For this reason Atatürk's views on contemporary Turkish music and music education play a decisive role in music education.
 
The music education development policies and programs in the Republican period were examined in detail. Republican period music education should be a resource for experts in the fields of development politics, information about musical education of institutions and organizations that are involved in general, organized and professional music education. At the same time, the written documents, reasons for establishing and closing institutions that provide music education in the study, the people mentioned in the period and the events they were leading were examined step by step (Connell, 2002).
 
Thus, a framework for the music education policies of the Republican period was tried to be drawn. Whether or not our music education policies are consistent with contemporary education understanding of the present day should be evaluated by experts and necessary innovations should be made. Today's technology must be constantly monitored and applied to current training programs. Among the music development programs, the field of music technology should definitely be taken, and the technology and music education should be coordinated with each other. Innovations aimed at this need to be particularly sensitive to our public institutions and institutions, our universities, in short, all our state organs. In this way, we will leave a better musical culture to future generations.


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The author has not declared any conflict of interests.



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