Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3813

Full Length Research Paper

A comparison study of the effects of Echinacea purpurea extract and mesna on cyclophosphamide- induced macroscopic fetal defects in rats

H. Najafzadeh1* and M. Khaksary Mahabady2
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran. 2Basic Sciences Group, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran.
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 13 November 2009
  •  Published: 31 December 2009


There are reports that the teratogenic effects of cyclophosphamide can be decreased by application of antioxidant drugs and stimulation of maternal immune system. Echinacea extract has being found to be antioxidative and immunomodulatory. Mesna (Sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate) is used for decreasing side effect of cyclophosphamide, especially hemorrhagic cystitis.  In this study, the prophylactic effects of mesna and Echinacea extract on teratogenic effects of cyclophosphamide were compared. This study was performed on 32 pregnant rats that were divided into four groups. The first group (control group) received normal saline and the other groups received cyclophosphamide (15 mg/kg intraperitonealy) at 13th day of gestation. Mesna and Echinacea purpurea extract were administrated at dose of 100 and 400 mg/kg intraperitonealy, respectively, 12 h later after cyclophosphamide injection, in two groups. Examination of fetuses was carried out in the 20th day of gestation and after determination of grass malformations, they were stained by Alizarin red - Alcian blue method. Cleft palate incidence was 38.46, 30.77 and 14.28% in fetuses of rats that received only cyclophosphamide, cyclophosphamide with mesna and cyclophosphamide with Echinacea extract, respectively. In addition, skeletal anomalies incidence including limbs, vertebra, sternum and scapula defects were decreased by Echinacea extract. Thus,Echinacea purpurea has better prophylactic effect than mesna on incidence of cyclophosphamide-induced cleft palate and some other anomalies.


Key words: Cyclophosphamide, macroscopic fetal defects, mesna, Echinacea purpurea, rats.