Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3833

Full Length Research Paper

Determination of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol contents in Cannabis sativa L. samples in Togo using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Kodjo Eloh
  • Kodjo Eloh
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Sciences de l’Environnement, Département de Chimie, Université de Kara, B.P. 401, Kara, Togo.
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Komi Alfa
  • Komi Alfa
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Substances Naturelles, Département de Chimie, Université de Lomé, B.P. 1515, Lomé, Togo.
  • Google Scholar
Oudjaniyobi Simalou
  • Oudjaniyobi Simalou
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Substances Naturelles, Département de Chimie, Université de Lomé, B.P. 1515, Lomé, Togo.
  • Google Scholar
Sabrina Chris Janiba SANVEE
  • Sabrina Chris Janiba SANVEE
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Substances Naturelles, Département de Chimie, Université de Lomé, B.P. 1515, Lomé, Togo.
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Marie-France Bakaï
  • Marie-France Bakaï
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Sciences de l’Environnement, Département de Chimie, Université de Kara, B.P. 401, Kara, Togo.
  • Google Scholar
Hèzouwè Kagnou
  • Hèzouwè Kagnou
  • Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et des Sciences de l’Environnement, Département de Chimie, Université de Kara, B.P. 401, Kara, Togo.
  • Google Scholar
Pierluigi Caboni
  • Pierluigi Caboni
  • Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari, Italy.
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  •  Received: 22 May 2023
  •  Accepted: 21 September 2023
  •  Published: 31 October 2023

Abstract

Cannabis sativa L. is a widely used recreational drug in Togo, especially among young people. However, little is known about its chemical composition in Sub-Saharan Africa, and specifically in Togo. This study aimed to determine the levels of phytocannabinoids, specifically Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in cannabis samples collected from various towns in Togo using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirteen cannabis samples were extracted with hexane using maceration and ultrasound to isolate phytocannabinoids, and a quick 24-min gas chromatographic separation method was used to analyse the extracts. THC, CBD, and cannabinol (CBN) were the major components identified in the samples. THC content ranged from 37.73±0.31 to 87.9±1.30% for maceration and from 39.09±2.17 to 84.54±0.80% for sonication, while CBD content varied from 1.36±0.27 to 4.07±0.23% for maceration and from 1.79±0.12 to 5.03±0.90% for sonication. These results indicate that cannabis consumed in Togo has high concentrations of THC and that maceration and sonication is more likely to extract THC and CBD, respectively. The findings could provide important information for the authorities in Togo to assess the extent of THC exposure among cannabis consumers in the country.

Key words: Cannabis sativa L., cannabidiol, phytocannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol, solvent extraction.