Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3833

Full Length Research Paper

Protective effect of Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantifolia against osteoporosis and their phytochemical constituents

Nagwa M. M. Shalaby1, Howaida I. Abd-Alla2*, Hanaa H. Ahmed3 and Nour Basoudan1
1Department of Scientific, Girls Faculty, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. 2Department of Natural Compounds Chemistry, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12311 Giza, Egypt. 3Department of Hormones, National Research Centre, Dokki, 12311 Giza, Egypt.  
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 17 November 2010
  •  Published: 18 February 2011


The efficacy of Citrus aurantifolia L. cv. Swingle and Citrus sinensis L. cv. Liucheng against osteoporosis was evaluated in an ovariectomized rat model. Administration ofCitrus extracts increased trabecular bone mineral content and bone mineral density of tibia, improved the levels of phosphorus and calcium. The results demonstrated that Citrusextracts reduced bone loss in ovariectomized rats. These findings have prompted the authors to investigate the phytochemical constituents of those plants, collected in Saudi Arabia, for the first time. Eighteen compounds were obtained from both plants and classified into, eight coumarins (1 - 8), eight flavonoids (9 - 16) and two sterols analogues (17 and 18). Leaves and peels of C. aurantifolia afforded eleven components, while those of C. sinensis afforded fourteen compounds. Structures of the isolated compounds were deduced by UV, NMR and MS spectra, and comparison with related structures, in whichisobergapten (6), marmesin (7), myricetin (11), 4',5,7-trihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy flavone (12), and quercetin-3-O-robinobioside (14), were reported to first time from Citrus species,Coumarins, flavonoids and sterols from C. aurantifolia and C. sinensis could be responsible for their antiosteoporotic activity and the action mechanism of these constituents needs to be further studied. Therefore, Citrus extracts have the potential to develop a clinically useful antiosteoporotic agent.


Key words: Citrus sinensis, Citrus aurantifolia, osteoporosis, bone mineral density, coumarins, flavonoids, sterols.