Spondias mombin L. is a medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, wounds and inflammation. In this study, the topical anti-inflammatory activity of S. mombin stem and ellagic acid was investigated. From the dried stem, powdered bark and wood were separately subjected to ethanol extraction by static maceration to obtain the EESB (bark) and EESW (wood) extracts. These extracts were analyzed by TLC and HPLC-DAD-UV. Using EESB and EESW (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/ear), GEESB and GEESW gel formulations (1, 3 and 5%) and ellagic acid (EA - 1 mg/ear), the topical anti-inflammatory activity was carried out by Croton oil-induced ear edema. Histopathological analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed. EA was identified in EESB and EESW as the main compound. After 6 h of treatment, EESB (53.83 to 63.06%), GEESB (41.45 to 43.48%), EESW (37.51 to 49.30%), GEESW (45.02 to 50.70%), and EA (58.59%) inhibited the ear thickness. In 24 h, the ear thickness was reduced by EESB (56.22 to 58.01%), GEESB (44.79 to 60.67%), EESW (44.11 to 62.69%), GEESW (49.38 to 62.88%) and EA (62.90%). In this time, ear weight, MPO, NAG, NO, leukocyte migration and vasodilation were decreased. These results suggest that S. mombin stem has topical anti-inflammatory activity, which supports the traditional uses and may represent an alternative for the treatment of cutaneous inflammation.
Key words: Spondias mombin, ellagic acid, topical formulation, inflammation, anti-inflammatory agents.
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