Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3793

Full Length Research Paper

Phytochemical analysis and safety evaluation of ethanol roots extract of Erythrina sacleuxii hua in Wistar albino rats

Mwanasiti O. Mwakumanya
  • Mwanasiti O. Mwakumanya
  • Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Pan African University Institute for Basic Sciences, Technology and Innovation, Nairobi, Kenya.
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Florence A. Ng’ong’a
  • Florence A. Ng’ong’a
  • Department of Biochemistry, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.
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Mutinda C. Kyama
  • Mutinda C. Kyama
  • Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.
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Esther N. Maina
  • Esther N. Maina
  • Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
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  •  Received: 14 December 2021
  •  Accepted: 15 March 2022
  •  Published: 30 April 2022

Abstract

Erythrina sacleuxii, one of five Erythrina species found in Kenya, is a stiffly multi-branched deciduous tree reported to have antiplasmodial, antifungal, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activities. This study aimed at evaluating acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of E. sacleuxii roots ethanolic extract. Phytochemical analysis was conducted on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. For acute and sub-acute toxicity studies 16 male rats n=4/group were used. The control group received 2% DMSO while treatment groups received 400, 1200 and 2400 mg/kg single dose (acute toxicity assay) and repeated for 14 days in subacute toxicity assay. Histopathological, serum biochemistry and hematological tests were analyzed. The results of FT-IR analysis recorded 12 dominant peaks, confirming availability of N-H, C-N, -C=C-, C-H, S=O, C-O and C-C functional groups. GC-MS analysis revealed presence of 17 bioactive phytochemicals mainly terpenoids and phenols. No toxic effect, organ toxicity or death was recorded in acute toxicity assay. In the subacute toxicity investigation, rats' behavior, gross pathology, and hematological parameters showed no significant changes. Biochemical analysis indicated an increase in alkaline phosphatase from 147 U/L at 400 mg/kg to 164 U/L at 2400 mg/kg however this was not statistically significant and no mortality was recorded. In comparison to the negative control, treatment groups’ gross and histopathology of livers and kidneys had no significant difference. These results demonstrate that 80% ethanolic extract of E. sacleuxii roots has no severe effects in both acute and subacute study. However, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity studies are necessary for further validation.

Key words: Erythrina sacleuxii, acute and sub-acute studies, phytochemical analysis.