Journal of
Neuroscience and Behavioral Health

  • Abbreviation: J. Neurosci. Behav. Health
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2286
  • DOI: 10.5897/JNBH
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 65

Review

Multiple sclerosis: An overview of the disease and current concepts of its pathophysiology

Bolaños-Jiménez R.1*, Arizmendi-Vargas J.1, Carrillo-Ruiz J. D.2,3, López-Lizárraga M. E.4, Calderón Álvarez-Tostado J. L.5, Martínez-Menchaca H.6, Leyva Resendiz I.7, Serrato-Ávila J. L.1, Rendón-Molina A.1 and Rivera-Silva G.6
1School of Medicine, Universidad Panamericana, Mexico City, Mexico. 2Neurosciences and Psycophysiology Department, Universidad Anáhuac, Mexico City, Mexico. 3Functional Neurosurgery and Radiosurgery Service, Hospital General de México, O.D., Mexico City, Mexico. 4School of Dentistry, Universidad Intercontinental, Mexico City, Mexico. 5Médica Sur Clinic and Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico. 6Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Basic Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Monterrey (UDEM), San Pedro Garza García, NL, Mexico. 7School of Medicine,Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México. Mexico.
Email: [email protected]

  • Article Number - 5F50A454691
  • Vol.3(4), pp. 44-50, April 2011
  •  Accepted: 23 March 2010
  •  Published: 30 April 2011

Abstract

The oligodendrocytes, myelin-producing cells in the central nervous system (CNS), have an essential role in “multiple sclerosis”. This disease is of unknown etiology, and thus, of a variable prognosis. The main pathologic feature is the injury to the myelin and loss of oligodendrocytes in the CNS. Studies of animal models, demonstrating that autoreactive T cells (CD4 or CD8) can result in inflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system, support the theory that multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disorder involving one or more antigens located in the myelin of central nervous system cells (neurons and glia). About the disorder´s pathology, important findings have been made regarding inflammation, adhesion-molecules, ion-channel alterations and the process of neurodegeneration in the progression of the multiple sclerosis plaque. The progress made so far in the pathogenesis of the disease will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in its progression and so, more specific treatments can be developed to ensure a better quality of life of the affected patients.

 

Key words: Oligodendrocytes, multiple sclerosis, myelin, demyelination, plaque, immune response, autoimmunity, pathogenesis.

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