Journal of
Plant Breeding and Crop Science

  • Abbreviation: J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9758
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPBCS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 409

Full Length Research Paper

Development and use of microsatellites markers for genetic variation analysis, in the Namibian germplasm, both within and between populations of marama bean (Tylosema esculentum)

M. Takundwa1, E. Nepolo1, P. M. Chimwamurombe1*, A. C. Cullis2, M. A. Kandawa-Schulz4 and K. Kunert3
  1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Namibia, P. Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia. 2Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. 3Department of Plant Science, University of Pretoria, 0001 South Africa. 4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Namibia.  
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 02 August 2010
  •  Published: 31 August 2010



Tylosema esculentum (marama) has long been identified as a candidate crop for arid and semi-arid environments due to its success in these environments and the high nutritional value of the seed. Molecular markers are essential for the assessment of the levels of genetic variation present within and between populations of marama as well for future marker-assisted breeding efforts. Microsatellites were isolated using a modified FIASCO enrichment technique. Eighty pairs of primers were designed to amplify across a selected set of perfect microsatellite repeats with greater than 5 repeat units. Of the 80 primer pairs screened, 76% were able to detect polymorphism and 21% gave monomorphic bands while the other 3% gave inconsistent results. Four of the polymorphic SSR’s were used for genetic variation analysis and have proved to be useful and informative markers for assessing intra-specific and inter-specific variability of marama bean. Heterozygosity (H) within and between populations of marama bean in the Namibian germplasm ranged from 0.30 to 0.74. Some of the populations had low genetic variation while others had high genetic variation.


Key words: Tylosema esculentum, microsatellites, FIASCO, polymorphism, genetic variation, heterozygosity.