Journal of
Physical Education and Sport Management

  • Abbreviation: J. Phys. Educ. Sport Manag.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6486
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPESM
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 78

Full Length Research Paper

Perceived constraints of campus recreational sports programs: Development and validation of an instrument

Theophilos Masmanidis
  • Theophilos Masmanidis
  • University of Macedonia, Greece.
  • Google Scholar
Nikolaos Tsigilis
  • Nikolaos Tsigilis
  • Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
  • Google Scholar
George Kosta
  • George Kosta
  • Democritus University of Thrace, Greece.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 13 January 2015
  •  Accepted: 24 March 2015
  •  Published: 31 March 2015


The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an instrument to measure students’ perceived constraints in participating in recreational sports programs in Greek universities. There were 3041 male and female Greek university students who voluntarily participated in the study. Cross-validation procedures using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in 25 retained items from the initial item pool, which form the University Sport Constraints Questionnaire (USCQ). Findings also showed a second-order factor structure of students’ perceived constraints. In particular, the USCQ items seem to assess nine first-order constraints, which are manifestations of three second-order factors. The USCQ seems to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring students’ reasons for not participating in recreational sports programs.


Key words: Constraints, leisure activities, instrument development, university sport, participation.