Journal of
Physical Education and Sport Management

  • Abbreviation: J. Phys. Educ. Sport Manag.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6486
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPESM
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 75

Full Length Research Paper

Orientation and mobility of the visually impaired in a blind baseball training method

Chao-Chien Chen
Office of Physical Education, Asia University, 500, Lioufeng Rd., Wufeng, Taichung City 41354, Taiwan.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 05 January 2012
  •  Published: 28 February 2012



This study investigated the impact of a 10-week baseball training camp on visually impaired players. Sixteen blind and visually impaired subjects were evenly divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group participated in baseball training three times a week for 1 h 14 min, while the control group did not participate in training. Test data were analyzed through analysis of variance with a paired sample t-test. Following the course of baseball training, the experimental group achieved a statistically significant improvement in orientation and mobility including: 1) a 33 foot unassisted fitness walking test; 2) a 33 foot walking test while holding a cane; 3) a 45 foot road map test, in which participants follow a predetermined course involving turns and orientation according to a sound beacon; 4) a test measuring the success rate of hitting a pitched ball. Following training, the time the experimental group required to complete the walking tasks and the success rate in hitting the ball both showed a statistically significant improvement (p<0.05). These findings strongly indicate how such training has a direct beneficial outcome towards orientation and mobility development for the visually impaired, and recommend further research into the effects of blind baseball training.


Key words: Visually impaired, 10-week blind baseball training, orientation, mobility