Malaria is one among four main infectious diseases leading in death for the under-five children in Africa. This study aim to determine prevalence of malaria and social demographic factors related with children under-five in Tanzania. The study used cross section data extracted from Tanzania demographic health survey collected from 2015 to 2016. A sample of 9,322 under five children with malaria rapid diagnostic test results was obtained from 10,899 households. Complimentary log-log model was used to determine factors associated with malaria among children under five years. The study reveals that malaria prevalence increases with increase in age, varies with place and zone of residence, being highest to the rural areas compared to urban. Complementary log-log model estimates has also indicated that Western zone was having a highest mean occurrence of children with malaria compared to all other zones whereas Zanzibar (Adjusted Parameter estimates = -4.521, CI: -5.92,-3.13) was having a lowest mean occurrence compared to Western zone and all other zones. The risk of malaria among under-five children was positively related with family wealth index. The results show that malaria decreases with an increase in wealth. Other explanatory variables which include; child sex, mother's age, marital status and education level, as well as mosquito net ownership were not statistically significant associated with malaria at 5% level. Therefore children's age, place of residence, zone of residence and wealth index are significant predictors of malaria in Tanzania. Particular emphasis on education and interventions across the groups need to be prioritized for continued improvements in targeting high prevalent areas to reduce malaria risks, especially to the children under-five years.
Key words: Malaria, children under five years, complementary log-log model.
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