Journal of
Public Health and Epidemiology

  • Abbreviation: J. Public Health Epidemiol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2316
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPHE
  • Start Year: 2009

JPHE Articles in press

Article in Press

“Lived experience of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patient; A hermeneutic phenomenological study”

INTRODUCTION: Control of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis doesn’t rely only on the presence of effective drugs to cure it but also psychosocial and economic factors of the cases. METHODS: A hermeneutic phenomenological study design was used to explore the lived experience of patients with multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis at ALERT hospital on December 28, 2017. Purposive sampling technique...

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Assessment of Healthcare Facilities Location and Medical Waste Generation and Handling in Nigeria.

This paper assessed healthcare facilities location and medical waste generation and handling in Nigeria. Analysis such as descriptive statistics, correlation, and factor analysis was carried out to identify gaps in healthcare facilities location and medical waste management in Nigeria. The population-to-healthcare provider ratio and healthcare waste generation rates in Nigeria were also analysed. The north central...

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Prevalence and associated factors of double burden of malnutrition among school adolescents 10-19 years in Burayu town, Oromia special zone, Ethiopia

Background: The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) is an emerging nutritional problem of the coexistence of underweight, and overweight and/or obesity affecting adolescents from both affluent and poor countries and nutritional status of adolescents in Ethiopia is not well documented, and they are the neglected segment of the population. Objective: The study aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of double...

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Assessing students’ nutritional junk food behaviors on interaction through their knowledge, attitudes, and amounting energy acquirements of upper secondary students in Thailand

To assess students’ nutritional junk food behaviors on interaction through their knowledge, attitudes, and amounting energy acquirements on junk food and the nutritional status of 429 upper secondary students in Thailand with the 20-item Questionnaire on Students’ Knowledge on Junk Food and Nutrition (QSKJFN), the 20-item Questionnaire on Nutritional Energy Quality on Junk Food (QNEQJF), and the 20-item Test of Nutritional...

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Approval Integrating Indoor and Outdoor Physical Environments of Early Childhoods to Learning Consonances at the Child Development Centers (CDCs) in

To integrate the indoor and outdoor physical environment managements at the Child Development Centers (CDCs) for enhancing early childhood learning consonance development with the Project Strengthen Capacity of Local Communities in Caring for Children Aged 2-5 Years Treasures (COACT). To apply the laws, regulations, and order contextual authorities with the Local Government Organization for appropriating innovations at the...

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PATIENT SATISFACTION TOWARD HEALTH SERVICE DELIVERIES AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SATISFACTION AT NEGELLE ARSI GENERAL HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL COLLEGE, OROMIA REGIONAL STATE, SOUTH-EAST ETHIOPIA.

Introduction:Patient satisfaction is patient’s judgment of their desires and expectations of health care. It is recognized as an important parameter for assessing the quality of patient care services delivered by healthcare organizations. Therefore, it reflects the gap between the expected services and the experience of the service. Objective: To assess patient satisfaction toward Health service deliveries and factors...

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Multivariate Logistic Regression Models on Children Malnutrition in Ethiopia: Data of 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey

Malnutrition at the early stages of life can lower child resistance to infections, increase child morbidity and mortality, and decrease mental development and cognitive achievement. Adequate nutrition is the keystone of survival, health and development not only the current generations but also the ones to come. Child malnutrition is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The main objective of this study was...

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Scoping Review on the Implementation of HIV management Programs for Adolescents Living with HIV.

Unlike to adults, adolescents often have poorer rates of viral suppression and long-term immunologic recovery. They often face unique developmental, psychological, psychosocial, and sexuality challenges as they are still developing physically, mentally, and sexually. The general purpose of this present study is to review and update information on implementation of HIV program for Adolescent living with HIV. A comprehensive...

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Application of Discrete Choice Models in the Analysis of Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Uses among Married Women in Oromiya Region, Ethiopia

Discrete choice models have been very successful thanks to their ability to analyze the random behavior of individuals when making a decision to use modern contraceptive methods and to evaluate their actions. Through the use of modern contraceptive methods, the national and international goals of family planning can be achieved as it reduces maternal and child mortality and morbidity. The specific objectives of this study...

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Predictors of women’s autonomy regarding maternal health care utilization in western Ethiopia, a community based cross-sectional study, 2019.

BACKGROUND; Women’s autonomy is important from health care seeking and utilization to choosing among treatment options. However, women in developing countries often have no or limited autonomy and control over their health METHODS; Cross-sectional study with both qualitative and quantitative method was employed. Multistage sampling method was used to select 468 participants. Collected data was entered into Epi Data to...

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Measles outbreak investigation and response in pastoralists and hard to reach kebeles of Hudet district, Somali region, Ethiopia, October 2018: A case control study

Measles is a highly contagious vaccine-preventable disease. In 2010 an estimated 140,000 deaths occurred worldwide. The aim of the investigation was to describe magnitude of measles outbreak and to identify its’ risk factors. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from October 1-20, 2018 in Hudet District. Sample size were determined based on similar studies. All 358 cases were line listed and we used simple random...

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Prevalence of Underfive Malnutrition Measured Through Newly proposed Indices of Anthropometric Failure, and Its determinants: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Habero Subzone, Eritrea

Background. Under-five children are one of the most vulnerable groups in any society to nutritional deficiencies due to many factors ranging from low birth weight and maternal ill health to socioeconomic and various environmental factors. Though it remains common all over the world, under-five malnutrition is particularly a very serious public health problem of developing countries like Eritrea. In this study CIAF was...

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Challenges of imported cholera outbreak among deportees in Ethiopia: from Saudi Arabia prisons

Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness which could leads epidemic and mortality. We investigated the outbreak of cholera and described cases by person, place and time. We conducted a descriptive cross sectional study in Addis Ababa, from June 12, 2018 to March 16, 2019. We used standard case definition to identify imported cholera cases. We reviewed medical record and laboratory findings. All collected data were entered...

Author(s):Cholera, outbreak, imported, Investigation, deportee, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, .

Article in Press

Prevalence of pressure ulcer among Hospitalized adult patients in Ethiopia. Systematic review and meta-analysis

Background: Pressure ulcer is a common problem that causes significant pain and additional costs, but has not been given appropriate high priority in hospitalized patients. They were individual studies on the prevalence of pressure ulcer among hospitalized patients in Ethiopia. But, there is no study that shows the national estimate of pressure ulcer among hospitalized patients. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the...

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Assessment of patient satisfaction with antiretroviral therapy services in Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital, South West Ethiopia: cross sectional study

Background: WHO and UNAIDS estimated that 36.9 million people were living with HIV in 2017 globally. That same year, 1.8 million people became newly infected with HIV and 940, 000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses. Objectives: To assess the satisfaction of people living with HIV with services given at anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinic of Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital (MTUTH). Methods: A cross-sectional...

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Investigating Factors of Female Genital Mutilation in Ethiopia

Over 125 million girls and women alive today have been cut in the 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where FGM/C is concentrated and the prevalence of FGM was 80% in 2000 and only a 5% decrease had been observed in 2005 in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess and identify the prevalence and factors associated with female genital mutilation in Ethiopia using 2016 EDHS. The dependent variable was...

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Prevalence and Risk Factors for Pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia in Northern Tanzania

Background: Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia has significant impact on maternal and perinatal health. Little is known about prevalence and risk factors for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in Tanzania. This study aimed to determine prevalence and risk factors for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia among women who delivered at KCMC hospital between 2000 to 2014. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at KCMC medical birth...

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Assessment of risky sexual behaviours and associated risk factors among students of Arsi University, Ethiopia.

Background: Risky sexual behaviour remains a critical health concern among the general population of Ethiopia. The occurrence of risky sexual behaviours and associated factors for HIV infections is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. The aim of this study was to assess the risky sexual behaviour among students of Arsi University. Methods: A cross sectional institutional based study was done in Arsi...

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Factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis treatment failure in Togo, 2015-2016

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) treatment failure compromises its elimination as recommended by Sustainable Development Goals. Our purpose was to determine the factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis treatment failure in Togo between 2015 and 2016. Methods: We conducted an unmatched case-control study on cases of pulmonary TB under treatment at all of 47 TB Diagnostic and Treatment Centers (DTC) in Togo between 2015...

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Genetic Diversity and Geographical Distribution of Strains of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex in Ethiopia: Review

Ethiopia, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major infectious disease with wide spread geographic distribution and endemic nature, which has been well documented both in human and livestock of the country. TB in livestock has an important economic and public health significance, although the actual prevalence of animal tuberculosis at national level is yet unknown. Identification of the etiology of tuberculosis in different...

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Assessing tuberculosis preventive methods in the Somme department: collaboration between the Tuberculosis Control Center and its partners

Introduction: The Tuberculosis Control Center (TBCC) is responsible for prevention of the TB in France. The collaboration of this center with its partners has not yet been studied. Methods: All notified cases of TB and all of their contacts screened between 2007 and 2011 were retrospectively included. Communication between actors in tuberculosis control was analyzed. Results: Of the 175 reported cases, the TBCC sent 85.1%...

Author(s):Pauline Kiswendsida Yanogo, Jean-Luc Schmit, Anne Sophie Fresse, Olivier Ganry,

Article in Press

Patient satisfaction with outpatient department services in Asella Teaching Referral Hospital, South East Ethiopia

Patient satisfaction is patient’s judgment of their desires and expectations of health care. This study determined patient satisfaction with outpatient department services. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Data was entered into Epi info version 7 computer software and transported to SPSS version 20 computer program for...

Author(s):Mohammed Suleiman Obsa ,Tahir Aman Worji

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Obesity and overweight with their associated risk factors among type ii diabetes mellitus patients attending dessie hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia, 2017

Obesity and overweight are public health problems, which are most common nutritional disorders in developing and developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Obesity and overweight attributes for morbidity and mortality of millions of people with type II diabetes patients around the globe by making them vulnerable to other diseases and complications. Diabetes occurs when the body cannot...

Author(s):Selam Yimer Mohammed, Yeshimebet Ali Dawed , Foziya Mohammed Hussein

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Prevalence of psychoactive substances use and associated factors among Health Sciences College Students, Southern Ethiopia

The use of psychoactive substances such as Alcohol, Khat and Cigarette has been recognized as the leading causes of human suffering. Its sphere of influence increase alarmingly and become the rising major public health and socio-economic problems worldwide. Even though substances use exhibit most segments of the societies, it is more spreading among the young generation. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence...

Author(s):Siraj Hussen, Zemenu Yohannes, Demelash Wachamo, Dejene Teklemariam, Wosenyeleh Semeon & Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse

Article in Press

Quality of life of HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy: A scoping review

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the life-threatening conditions that affects various domains of patients’ life. The quality of life (QoL) of HIV patients has emerged as a major public health concern. People living with HIV (PLHIV) experience numerous problems that range from discrimination, changes in the patterns of relationships (intimacy), loss of social status, role, jobs and financial resources....

Author(s):Nsagha Dickson Shey, Kibu Odette Dzemo, Verla Vincent Siysi, Albert Same Ekobo and Njouendou Abdel Jelil

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AWARENESS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT FOR BREAST CANCER PATIENTS AND IT’S PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Breast cancer is the most common and steeply rising cancer among women in Bangladesh. This qualitative observational study is done to assess the psychosocial sufferings of breast cancer patients. The purpose of the study is to evaluate eradication of social obstacles and to amending the overall level of distress and stigma associated with breast cancer. The observational prospective study was conducted on 240 patients aged...

Author(s):Nazat Sultana

Article in Press

Determinants of focused antenatal care service satisfaction in public health facilities in Ethiopia, 2018: a mixed study design

Ethiopia has been implementing focused antenatal care package to reduce maternal and child deaths. The quality of antenatal care service has being not resolved widely due to unstandardized measurement. Hence, this study assessed determinants of focused antenatal care service satisfaction in Public Health Facilities of West Guji Zone, Ethiopia, 2018. a facility based cross-sectional triangulated with qualitative study...

Author(s):Melkamu Bekele Selgado, Yimer Hottesa Dukale & Damene Darota Amamo

Article in Press

Knowledge and Practice of Essential Newborn Care Among Postnatal Mothers in Addis Ababa City Health Centers, Ethiopia

Essential newborn care is a wide-ranging approach planned to improve the health of newborn through interventions after pregnancy. In Ethiopia, about 120,000 newborns die every year in the first weeks of life which accounts for 42% of all deaths of under-five mortality. Therefore this study is aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of essential newborn care practices among mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A...

Author(s):Workinesh Daba, Tsion Alemu, Mulugeta Shegaze Shimbre & Behailu Tsegaye

Article in Press

Diagnose at admission and factors associated with management outcome of neonate in Ayder referral hospital, Northern Ethiopia

Children less than 5 years old commonly occurred during neonatal period and majority of the deaths occurring in developing countries particularly sub Saharan African countries. To assess cause of neonate admission and factors associated with management outcomes among neonates admitted in the neonatal care unit of Ayder referral hospital in Tigray region ; Northern -Ethiopia. Institutional based cross-sectional record...

Author(s):Masresha Leta Serbesa and Maleda Tefera Iffa

Article in Press

Risky Sexual Behavior and Associated Factors among Preparatory School Students In Arsi Negelle Town, Oromia Ethiopia

Risky sexual behavior remains the major public health concern commonly affecting youths and make them vulnerable for ample of unintended health outcomes, including STIs, unplanned pregnancy and abortion for female. To intervene these negative consequences of risky sexual behavior the contributing factors must be identified. However there is limited studies that have been conducted on sexual behavior of school going...

Author(s):Nega Degefa Megersa, Girum Sebsibe Teshome

Article in Press

Youth friendly service utilization and associated factors among preparatory school students in Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia 2018: Institutional based Crossectional study

Background: There are 1.2 billion youth worldwide who have not gained enough access for sexuality education, safe abortion where legal, prevention of early pregnancy, human immune virus, sexually transmitted disease infection, violence and coercion. Objective: To assess youth-friendly service utilization and associated factors among preparatory school students in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia Methods: An institutional...

Author(s):Natnael Atnafu Gebeyehu, YeshiAssefaKorasie, Semarya Berhe Lemlem, KelemuAbebe Gelaw & EyasuAlem Lake

Article in Press

FAMILY ENGAGEMENT: A MODEL FOR IMPROVED HEALTH OUTCOMES IN PUERTO RICO

Puerto Rico has been undergoing economic and health crises, which were exacerbated by damages from hurricane Maria in 2017. Family is central to the Latino culture, in which it is commonly referred to as familismo. The term implies strong family ties and engagement in all aspects of Puerto Rican life. This study examined how it could be harnessed as a powerful tool to improve health outcomes in that context. The...

Author(s):Carlos Omar Nesbeth, Wilfredo Alonso Acevedo, Vincent Agboto, Elmang Nchako, Manuel Acevedo Pena

Article in Press

Alarming levels of ototoxicity among multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients on intensive phase of treatment at specialist treatment centers in South Western, Nigeria

Management of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients remains a challenge in the control of tuberculosis worldwide. MDR-TB patients require long term treatment with drugs that cause various adverse effects especially ototoxicity associated with aminoglycoside. Current treatment guidelines still include aminoglycosides use especially in developing countries. However, there is dearth of information regarding...

Author(s):Bamgboye Eniola Adetola

Article in Press

Hidden Costs of Hospital Based Delivery among Women using Public Hospitals of Ethiopia

Background: Institutional delivery has remained expensive for poor households due to hidden costs. Hidden costs are the costs that are not accounted for in hospital cost. The aim of this study was to estimate the hidden costs of institutional delivery and to identify associated factors. Methods: Health facility based descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Bale zone from August 13 to September 2, 2018. Exit...

Author(s):Melese Merga, Tilahun Fufa & Tesfamichael Alaro

Article in Press

PREDISPOSING FACTORS IN ADOPTION AND UTILIZATION OF NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHOD AMONG WOMEN IN OWERRI MAIN MARKET, IMO STATE, NIGERIA

This study investigates the predisposing factors in adoption and utilization of Natural Family Planning (NFP) methods among women in Owerri Main Market. The main objectives was to determine the physiological basis of NFP methods, the advantages and disadvantages of NFP methods and to identify the predisposing factors in adoption and practice of NFP among women. Two hundred Fifty women were selected for the study through...

Author(s):Onuoha Udonna Peace

Article in Press

Treatment success and associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Public Private Mixed Directly Observed Treatment Short course facilities in Oromia region, Ethiopia

Background: Evaluation of treatment success of tuberculosis treatment is used as a major indicator of program quality. However, treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients has not consistently been evaluated yet in private health facilities working with the public health facilities in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment (PPM-DOTS) facilities. The objective of the study was to assess treatment success and associated...

Author(s):Belay Bayissasse and Getachew Gebreselassie

Article in Press

Factors affecting utilization of antenatal care services and institutional delivery at Koghum in Jos South, Plateau State, Nigeria

Access to antenatal care services promotes safe motherhood and delivery. It also improves maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study identified factors influencing the utilization of antenatal care services and health facility-based delivery. Methods: A community based cross sectional survey was conducted. Households were enumerated, and a systematic sampling method was used to selected one in four HHs.A sample size of...

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A Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial on Mobile Phone Text Messaging to Improve Sexo-Reproductive Health in Cameroon

This trial aims at testing the efficacy of weekly sexo-reproductive health educational text messages to improve perception of adolescent girls on sexo-reproductive health in Cameroon. Subjects and Methods: This is a single-centered randomized controlled single-blinded trial. Adolescent girls aged 10-19 years in the Kumbo West Health District are the target population. A central computer generated randomization list will...

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Knowledge, Attitudes, Perception and Behaviours of HIV/AIDS among End-Cycle Students in Cote d’Ivoire: Cross-sectional Survey

Introduction: In Cote d’Ivoire, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS has declined significantly in the last decade as a result of public health actions. An assessment of knowledge, attitudes, perception and behaviours was carried out to assess the outcome of the strategies for raising awareness and communicating with students about HIV/AIDS. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among students enrolled...

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Food Safety Knowledge and Practice among Pregnant Women in Assin Fosu, Ghana.

Background: Although foodborne illness is preventable, it has become a growing public health concern worldwide. Foodborne pathogens are more likely to cause infection and to result in serious consequences in vulnerable people than in healthy adults. The occurrence of foodborne illness is highly related to the level of food safety knowledge, consumer practices and household food safety especially among susceptible...

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FREQUENCY OF HEPATITIS B AND C AMONG FRESH RECRUITED POLICE SOLDIERS IN DISTRICT MUZAFFARABAD, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR PAKISTAN

Background: Hepatitis B and C has gained a prime importance because 240 million people are infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 150 million people are infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Present study was aimed to find out frequency of hepatitis B & C and associated risk factors among fresh recruited police soldier. Methodology: Cross sectional study which consist of 100 fresh recruit police soldiers from...

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Adverse Birth Outcome and Associated factors among Newborns Delivered in Public Health Institutions, Southern Ethiopia

Background: Adverse birth outcomes are big problem of neonatal health in developing nations. Stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight and birth asphyxia are the major contributors of adverse birth outcome. There is limited data on adverse birth outcomes and intrapartum care in Ethiopia. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the magnitude of adverse birth outcomes and associated factors among newborns delivered in public...

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Assessment of Influenza Outbreak in Kallu Dstrict of Amhara Region, Northwestern Ethiopia

Background: Influenza is a respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses. It spread from person-to-person by contact with respiratory secretions. Worldwide, annual influenza epidemics result in an estimated 3–5 million cases of severe illness and 250,000-500,000 deaths every year. Influenza outbreak occurred in Kallu district, due to this; we had assessment and identify associated risk factors with the...

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A FIVE-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BREAST CANCER AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING JIMMA UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER, SOUTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA.

Aims/purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with nearly 2.1 million new cases diagnosed in 2018 The incidence of breast cancer has been increasing worldwide and in Africa it is currently the most common cancer in women. The exact figure of breast cancer cases in Ethiopia is not known but studies show that its incidence has been increasing over the past decades. This study has sought to...

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LONG LASTING INSECTICIDE TREATED NET UTILIZATION AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG HOUSEHOLDS IN ZIWAY DUGDA DISTRICT, ETHIOPIA

Background: Although, significant number of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) had been distributed in the previous years, the prevalence of malaria is a growing concern in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed the utilization of LLINs and associated factors among households in the Ziway Dugda district, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study design on 728 households (HHs) was done. Epi-data Version 3.1 and...

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The incidence of vasovagal reaction and its predictors among Ethiopian blood donors: A retrospective cohort study

Background: Blood donations are generally well tolerated but they are not completely without risk. While the majority of complications are mild and self-limiting, some can cause significant donor discomfort and negative effect on donor satisfaction and return for the donation. Vasovagal reactions are among the most common complications of blood donations. Understanding the incidence of vasovagal reaction and its associated...

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Article in Press

Willingness of Community to Enroll in Community Based Health Insurance and Associated Factors at House Hold Level in Siraro District, West Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

To ensure that health care is accessible to all, Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI) should be promoted and more people should be encouraged to participate. To assess willingness of community to enroll in community based health insurance and factors associated at household level in Siraro District, Ethiopia, 2017. Community based cross sectional study design was employed for 413 household samples. Simple random...

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Malaria surveillance data analysis-Raya Alamata district, Ethiopia: Five years (2011 to 2015) retrospective record review

Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. It is the major public important in Ethiopia and one of the top ten diseases in Raya Alamata district. Ongoing malaria surveillance data analysis is useful for assessing the incidence, monitoring trends and evaluating the effectiveness of malaria control programs. Therefore, the objective of this analysis was to describe malaria morbidity...

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Health professionals Perception and Satisfaction on Quality of Laboratory Malaria Diagnostic service; the case Awi Zone, North Ethiopia

Inappropriate perception and inadequate satisfaction of health workers pose significant challenges on malaria diagnostic services in the fight against malaria. Such information however is a gap in most rural health facilities. This study assessed Health Professionals perception and their satisfaction towards malaria quality diagnostic service in Northern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional facility based study was conducted in...

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The Assessment of Knowledge and Awareness of North-West University Students, Based on Rotavirus Infections.  

Rotavirus is the one of most diarrhoeal cases in developing countries for both children and adults. The transmission is via the faecal-oral-route; unwashed or poorly washed hands can be the source of contamination to people, water and food. Zoonotic infection also contributes to the increase of rotavirus infection. In order to avoid risk of infection, it is critical to be informed about the virus. This study aims to assess...

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