Journal of
Public Health and Epidemiology

  • Abbreviation: J. Public Health Epidemiol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2316
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPHE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 653

Full Length Research Paper

Population screening for chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors: a survey in Hail region, KSA

Ibrahim Abdelmajeed Ginawi1*, Abdelbaset AM Elasbali2, Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed1, Ibraheem M. Ashankyty2, Tahani Altamimi1, Sharafeldien Alhasan1 and Awdah M. Al-hazimi1
1College of Medicine, University of Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 2College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 03 June 2013
  •  Published: 31 July 2013


Early identification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) provides valuable opportunities for effective interventions that reduce the risk of outcomes particularly renal failure and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to screen the local population for CKD to identify potential risk factors for its development. Screening for CKD was performed involving 299 individuals aged over 15 year-old subjects in a cross sectional survey. Participants completed a questionnaire, clinical examination (diabetes and hypertension) and were then referred for laboratory investigations (creatinine, urea, uric acid and urine protein) for CKD and other potential risk factors (including diabetes and hypertension). CKD was identified in 70/299 (24%), of whom 27/70 (38.6%) were males and 43/70 (61.4%) were females, 49/70 (70%, P=0.001) were cases of diabetes, while 45/70 (64.3%, P=0.001) were with hypertension. This preliminary study provided information on the frequency of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Hail region. However, larger population needs to be screened to establish the role of these risk factors in the etiology of CKD in Hail region.


Key words: Hail, chronic kidney disease (CKD), hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF).