Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) treatment failure compromises its elimination as recommended by Sustainable Development Goals. Our purpose was to determine the factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis treatment failure in Togo between 2015 and 2016. Methods: We conducted an unmatched case-control study on cases of pulmonary TB under treatment at all of 47 TB Diagnostic and Treatment Centers (DTC) in Togo between 2015 and 2016. Treatment failure of TB was defined as any patient whose sputum smear or culture were positive at month 5 or later during treatment. Controls were patients whose smear sputum was negative at the fifth month of treatment or later. We performed logistic regression model to identify independently associated factors by calculating Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR). Results: In multivariate analysis, factors associated with treatment failure were: positive sputum result in 2nd month (OR = 38.75; 95% CI [10.52-142.76], p≤0.001), occurrence of side effects (OR=3, 61; 95% CI [1.06-12.22], p=0.038), treatment interruption for at least 14 days (OR=8.15; 95% CI [2.35-28.28], p≤0.001), no family Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (OR=23.76; 95% CI [5.66-99.64], p≤0.001). Conclusion: we identified the socio-demographic and clinical factors of tuberculosis treatment failure whose inclusion in action plans would contribute to achieve TB elimination in Togo.
Keywords: Tuberculosis, failure, cured, DOTS, Togo