Malaria showed a significant decline in Senegal following the scale up of malaria control around the country with epidemiological disparities. Assessment of multiplicity of infection (MOI) and genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum population evolution proved its efficacy in monitoring malaria control. However, to our knowledge few studies focused on the dynamic changes of genetic diversity and MOI in Senegal. The present study aimed to analyze allelic diversity of Pfmsp1 and Pfmsp2 genes and MOI on P. falciparum isolates from Kedougou and Thies regions in Senegal from 2014 to 2017. Allelic polymorphism of Pfmsp1 and Pfmsp2 were assessed by the nested PCR. Over the four years, MAD20 frequencies were significantly predominant in Kedougou (48 to 64%) than Thies (7 to 29%) (P<0.01). Monoclonal infections with K1 (56 to 70%) or RO33 (10 to 17%) were higher in Thies than Kedougou. No significant difference in frequencies of Pfmsp2 allelic families was found and IC3D7 was predominant in both areas during the study. MOI means in the two regions were similar, showing an increase between 2014 and 2015 and a decrease from 2015 to 2017. However, its averages were higher in Kedougou than Thies. The frequencies of the allelic families of Pfmsp1 and Pfmsp2 reported by the study showed a difference within the temporal and spatial evolution of P. falciparum genetic diversity from these regions between 2014 and 2017. However, the similarity observed in the MOI means’ evolution within two regions needs to be deeply investigated on malaria transmission surveillance.
Key words: Senegal, Plasmodium falciparum, Pfmsp1, Pfmsp2, allelic diversity, MOI.
DBS, Dried blood samples; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; EIR, entomological inoculation rate; MOI, multiplicity of infection; NMCP, National Malaria Control Program; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; Pfmsp1, merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium falciparum; Pfmsp2, merozoite surface protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; UV, ultraviolet; WHO, World Health Organization.
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