Journal of
Parasitology and Vector Biology

  • Abbreviation: J. Parasitol. Vector Biol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2510
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPVB
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 192

Full Length Research Paper

In vitro efficacy of standard antimalarial drugs on parasitic isolates from patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

Albert A. Gnondjui
  • Albert A. Gnondjui
  • Malaria Unit, Institut Pasteur de Côte d'Ivoire, 01 P. O. Box 490 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.
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André O. Touré
  • André O. Touré
  • Malaria Unit, Institut Pasteur de Côte d'Ivoire, 01 P. O. Box 490 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.
  • Google Scholar
Eric A. Gbessi
  • Eric A. Gbessi
  • Malaria Unit, Institut Pasteur de Côte d'Ivoire, 01 P. O. Box 490 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.
  • Google Scholar
Francis A. Yapo
  • Francis A. Yapo
  • University of Felix Houphouët Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
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Sylvain Beourou
  • Sylvain Beourou
  • Malaria Unit, Institut Pasteur de Côte d'Ivoire, 01 P. O. Box 490 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.
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Ibrahima Sanogo
  • Ibrahima Sanogo
  • Haematology Department, Youpougon teaching hospital, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
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Ronan Jambou
  • Ronan Jambou
  • Malaria Unit, Institut Pasteur de Côte d'Ivoire, 01 P. O. Box 490 Abidjan 01, Côte d'Ivoire.
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  •  Received: 16 February 2022
  •  Accepted: 08 August 2022
  •  Published: 30 September 2022

Abstract

Malaria infection triggers off vaso-occlusive attacks in sickle cell patients, leading drastically to death. Sickle-cell patients use artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as recommended by the WHO to treat malaria infections to prevent these crises. The survey of sensitivity of parasites collected from sickle-cell patients needs is important to be re-specified. Red cells from these patients differ from others in terms of redox potential and calcium flow. The aim of this study was to assess the in-vitro efficacy of standard antimalarials used by this fragile population in order to find out a suitable medical policy for them in Côte d'Ivoire. For this purpose, the standard isotope test for schizont maturation and the Ring-stage survival assay were used to ascertain the in-vitro sensitivity of 116 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from sickle cell patients, collected from Abidjan for dihydroartemisinin, chloroquine, amodiaquine, quinine and luméfantrine. All the isolates exhibited different responses with the different antimalarials. No cases of in-vitro resistance to Lumefantrine and Quinine were noticed, reappearance of chloroquine-sensitive and a strong cross activity of chloroquine and dihydroartemisinin were observed. Indeed, 87 (65.41%) isolates were dihydroartemisinin-sensitive in-vitro whereas 20 (15.04%) had a resistants after exposure to 700 nM. The majority of clinical isolates non-responding to dihydroartemisinin were from the sickle cell phenotype HbSS. To sum up, despite the decrease of the in-vitro sensitivity of dihydroartemisinin on some sickle cell isolates, this molecule is still efficient. However, it must be actively monitored by the National Malaria Control Programme, particularly for sickle cell patients where a decrease in sensitivity was observed.

Key words: Sickle cell anemia, malaria, Côte d’Ivoire, Plasmodium falciparum, anti-malarials, treatment resistance, in-vitro drug monitoring.