Ectoparasites pose a serious health threat and constitute major impediments in poultry production in many countries of the world including Ethiopia. However, they are paid less attention as endoparasites and infectious diseases; the huge economic burden of the parasites need a comprehensive study encompassing both intensive and free range poultry in order to generate accurate information about the disease. The current study was designed to identify species composition, estimate prevalence and assess associated risk factor of ectoparasites of poultry in extensive and intensive farms in and around Jimma town. A cross sectional study was conducted from January to June 2017 and a total of 384 chickens from purposively selected two intensive farms (n=222) and randomly selected free range systems (n=162) were sampled by systematic random sampling technique. Ectoparasites were collected from different parts of the body including skin scrapings from the shank and base of the wing. Breed, ages, sexes and management system were recorded. This study showed overall prevalence of 65.6% and lice, fleas and mites were predominant ectoparasite in the current area with prevalence rates of 28, 26.6 and 10.9% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that ectoparasite infestation was significantly higher in local than exotic chickens (OR=12; CI=7.320-19.673; P<0.001). Regarding ages, adults were found to be 6.29 more likely susceptible to ectoparasites than young chickens (OR=6.29; CI=3.745-10.587; P<0.001). Similarly, statistically significant variation was encountered between sexes as females were more infested than male chicken in the current study (OR=1.48; CI=1.277-2.242; P=0.040). Additionally, chickens kept under extensive management were significantly prone to ectoparasites than that kept under intensive management system (OR=8.12; CI=5.012-13.164; P<0.001). Generally, the study revealed that ectoparasites are highly prevalent in extensive farming system than in intensive farming system and in exotic than local chicken. Therefore, control of ectoparasites and creation of awareness in the community on the overall effect of ectoparasites on productivity of poultry is highly recommended.
Key words: Prevalence, chicken, poultry, ectoparasites, intensive, extensive farm.
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