In Burkina Faso, most reported Schistosoma infections are related to urinary schistosomiasis and focus on school-aged children. Here, we aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis and associated risk factors among patients in “Vallée du Kou” in Burkina Faso one year after treatment with praziquantel. A longitudinal study involving 980 participants of both sexes aged 6 to 80 years living in “Vallée du Kou” was carried out from February 2007 to March 2008. The participants were requested to answer to a questionnaire based on their activities and hygiene practices. At the inclusion time and during follow-up visits (1.5, 3, 6 and 12 months), stool samples were collected. Schistosoma eggs in stools were detected using the Kato-Katz test method. Patients with stool-egg-positives were treated with a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg praziquantel. Among the 980 participants enrolled, the median age was 18 years, with a minimum age of 6 and a maximum age of 80 and 57.35% were male. At baseline and at follow-up after treatment, a successive decrease in prevalence was observed from 23.10 to 13.43% at 1.5 months and to 7.42% at 3 months, with a slight recrudescence to 8.69% at six months and to 11.46% at 12 months. Swimming, an age of 6-13 years, residence, contact with a river, and defecation in an open field were the main risk factors found to be statistically significantly associated with the occurrence of Schistosoma mansoni. This study showed that one year after treatment with praziquantel, the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection decreased. The mainly risk factors associated with infection were participant activities, residence and lack of hygiene.
Key words: Schistosoma mansoni, stools, Kato–Katz, praziquantel, prevalence, risk factors.
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