Camel brucellosis represents a major public health concern, which affects social and economic development in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three selected districts of Afar region of Ethiopia to determine seroprevalence of camel brucellosis. A total of 1152 camels from 168 camel herds were included in the study. All serum samples were consequently tested and confirmed serologically using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Risk factors analysis was also conducted using multivariable and univariate logistic regression analysis. As a result, 58 (5.0%) were RBPT reactors in which 47 (4.1%, 95% CI: 2.9 to 5.3%) were confirmed to be positive using CFT and at least one reactor camel was found in 37 (22.0%) of the total herds sampled. The statistical analysis indicated that herd size (OR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.98, P=0.04) and contact with other ruminants (OR=0.62; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.82, P=0.001) were the major risk factors for the presence and transmission of the disease between animals. In addition, pluriparous (4.7%), abortive (5.7%), pregnant (6.6%) and lactating (4.1%) camels were found with higher seropositivity which contributed in transmission of the disease to calves, other ruminants as well as to humans, but this was not a statistically significant association (P>0.05). In conclusion, camel brucellosis is prevalent in this area of study and there is a need for planning and implementation of joint programs by stakeholders in prevention and control of the disease as well as raising public awareness in decreasing the distribution of the disease in the area.
Key words: Camel brucellosis, complement fixation test (CFT), Ethiopia, Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), risk factors, seroprevalence.
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